25 Famous Sociology Theories: Examples and Applications

sociology theory examples and definition, explained below

Sociological theory refers to the conceptual frameworks sociologists use to understand, explain, and predict human behavior within the context of social structures and systems.

We can generally divide sociological theories into two rough buckets. The two buckets are:

  • Macrosociology: Macrosociology explores large-scale social structures, long-term processes, and societal trends. For instance, conflict theory posits that social life is a struggle between groups to gain control of resources, thus causing social inequalities (Robinson, 2014). Theorists such as Marx and Weber elaborate on how overarching structures like the economy drive social behaviors and patterns. 
  • Microsociology: Microsociology studies the intimate social interactions and everyday behaviors of individuals and small groups, with an intrest in individual agency. For instance, symbolic interactionism, a micro sociological theory, explicates how people use symbols (like words or gestures) to create meaning and communicate with each other (Jeon, 2017).
  • Mesosociology: Mesosociology examines the in-between social forces and factors, such as examining local communities, ageism, race and ethnicity, and so on, on regional levels, without the explicit focus on only social institutions (e.g. educational institutions) or specific individuals.

Below are the 25 most famous sociological theories from both macro and micro perspectives.

Sociology Theory Examples

1. Conflict Theory

Type of Theory: Macrosociology

Conflict Theory proposes that society is marked by ongoing struggles for resources and power, resulting in social inequalities.

This theory, originally formulated by Karl Marx, asserts that social life is fundamentally about contestations between groups with differing interests (Robinson, 2014).

It highlights how those with more resources often wield greater power, having the ability to shape society to maintain their privileges.

Consequently, it posits that conflicts may arise because of power dynamics and these disagreements drive social change

Example of Conflict Theory
The persistent wage gap between men and women in many societies can be seen as an illustration of conflict theory, showcasing how power plays maintain social disparities (Blau & Kahn, 2017). It suggests that the gender wage gap is a reflection not solely of individuals’ choices but also of broader societal structures and power dynamics.

2. Functionalism

Type of Theory: Macrosociology

Definition: Functionalism considers society as a complex system of interdependent parts, each having a function fulfilling societal stability.

This sociological perspective, rooted in the works of Emile Durkheim, perceives each segment of society as vital for its overall functioning — much akin to the organs in a body (Parsons, 2010).

Maintaining harmony is crucial, as per this paradigm, with every part, be it family, education, or law, contributing towards societal equilibrium. Disruptions to this balance, such as social changes or conflicts, are seen as temporary disturbances that society works to resolve.

Example of Functionalism
An example from functionalism could be the educational system, which not only provides knowledge (manifest function) but also serves to integrate individuals into societal norms and expectations (latent function) (Meyer, 2011). Here, education is vital for maintaining societal stability and ensuring societal continuity.

3. Symbolic Interactionism

Type of Theory: Microsociology

Symbolic Interactionism emphasizes how individuals use symbols to navigate social interactions and create social worlds.

This theory, developed by George Herbert Mead and further expanded by Herbert Blumer, highlights the subjective meaning of human actions and interactions (Jeon, 2017).

It propounds that people act based on the meanings objects, behaviors, or words have for them, and these meanings emerge from social interactions.

Therefore, society is viewed as being actively and continually constructed and reconstructed through these interactions and the meanings derived from them. 

Example of Symbolic Interactionism
An everyday illustration of symbolic interactionism is the use of language, a system of symbols, to convey our thoughts or feelings (Stryker, 2017). The meaning assigned to words isn’t inherent but constructed through our social interactions, and this plays a crucial role in determining our subsequent actions and reactions.

4. Social Exchange Theory

Type of Theory: Microsociology

Social Exchange Theory postulates that human relationships and interactions are guided by a cost-benefit analysis and the pursuit of rewards.

Driven by the principles of economics, this theory suggests that individuals engage in social interactions akin to transactions, aiming to maximize their benefits and minimize their costs (Cook, 2013).

Impressions of past exchanges and expectations of future returns inform the decisions to pursue or withdraw from interactions.

The balance of rewards against costs can contribute significantly to the stability of social relationships, or conversely, their dissolution. 

Example of Social Exchange Theory
The dynamics of friendships can be viewed through this lens (Molm, 2010), where individuals continue the friendship so long as the perceived emotional support, companionship, and other benefits outweigh the costs, such as time commitment and emotional energy.

5. Feminist Theory

Type of Theory: Macrosociology, Microsociology, and Mesosociology

Feminist Theory is concerned with understanding and challenging the social inequalities and injustices faced by women.

This multidisciplinary set of theories emphasizes the diverse experiences of women, often overlooked in traditional sociological paradigms, shedding light on the interconnectedness of gender with other social structures like race, class, and sexuality (Risman, 2017).

It critically examines the ways in which societal institutions perpetuate gender disparities, seeking to dismantle patriarchal structures.

Feminist theorists assert that meaningful societal change necessitates a paradigm shift in gender relations and the deconstruction of problematic norms and stereotypes. 

Example of Feminist Theory
The gender pay gap is an instance where feminist theorists have highlighted systemic injustice (Bobbitt-Zeher, 2011), pointing to discriminatory employment practices and societal norms that value certain types of work over others.

6. Structural Strain Theory

Type of Theory: Macrosociology

Structural Strain Theory posits that social dysfunctions and deviant behavior arise when there is a discrepancy between societal goals and the means to achieve those goals.

This theory, formulated by Robert K. Merton, suggests that when individuals have limited resources or opportunities to reach socially-approved goals, they might resort to socially unacceptable means, leading to deviance (Agnew, 2011).

Merton conceptualized five adaptation modes to this strain – conformity, innovation, ritualism, retreatism, and rebellion, each reflecting different responses to the experienced disconnection between goals and means.

Example of Structural Strain Theory
The incidence of property crime in economically disadvantaged communities reflects this theory (Chamlin & Cochran, 2012), where limited legitimate means to achieve financial success might pressure individuals towards unlawful ways.

7. Labeling Theory

Type of Theory: Microsociology

Labeling Theory argues that individuals become deviant not merely due to their actions but rather due to societal reactions and labels attached to their behavior.

It suggests that once a deviant label is applied, it becomes part of the individual’s self-concept, shaping their actions and leading to a ‘self-fulfilling prophecy’ (Tannenbaum, 2019).

Individuals might internalize the label, causing them to act in ways that confirm the societal stereotype.

Hence, this theory challenges the simplistic perception of deviance as an inherent characteristic and instead, underscores the role of social definitions and reactions. 

Example of Labeling Theory
Stigmatization of ex-offenders and the subsequent difficulty in reintegrating into society highlight the power of negative labels (Moore, 2016). This societal response often leads to recidivism, validating the label and perpetuating a cycle of deviance.

8. Rational Choice Theory

Type of Theory: Microsociology

Rational Choice Theory assumes that individuals make decisions based on their rational calculations, aiming to maximize personal benefit.

This theory applies economic theory to social interactions, suggesting that people behave as rational actors, weighing the costs and benefits of potential actions (Becker, 2013).

While initially focused on economic behavior, the theory has been expanded to understand a broad range of social phenomena, from politics to crime.

Critics, however, question the assumption of perfect rationality, pointing out that humans’ decision-making can often be influenced by emotions, biases, and other non-rational factors.

Example of Rational Choice Theory
Choosing whether or not to attend college can be considered in terms of this theory (Dominitz & Manski, 1996) – individuals weigh the immediate costs (tuition fees, loss of potential income from working) and the potential long-term benefits (higher earnings, better employment prospects).

9. Social Disorganization Theory

Type of Theory: Macrosociology

Social Disorganization Theory suggests that crime rates are higher in neighborhoods where social institutions (like schools and families) are unable to maintain control.

According to Shaw and McKay’s pioneering work in the early 20th century, social disorganization arises due to certain characteristics such as poverty, residential instability, and ethnic diversity (Sampson & Groves, 1989).

These factors hinder the formation of close-knit, cohesive communities, leading to social disorganization.

As a result, these communities struggle to maintain social control, providing fertile ground for criminal behavior.

Example of Social Disorganization Theory
High rates of juvenile delinquency in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods exemplify this theory (Kubrin & Weitzer, 2003) – without stable social structures, young people may turn to crime as a means of navigation through disorganized social environments.

10. Social Learning Theory

Type of Theory: Microsociology

Social Learning Theory posits that people learn from observing others, with the environment, cognition, and behavior all interplaying to influence learning.

Developed primarily by Albert Bandura, this theory suggests that indirect or vicarious experiences, such as observing others’ behavior and the consequences of such behavior, play a crucial role in human learning (Bandura, 2011).

It posits that individuals are more likely to adopt behaviors if they observe similar people being rewarded for these behaviors.

Conversely, they are less likely to replicate behaviors if they see others being punished for them.

Example of Social Learning Theory
The influence of media violence on aggressive behavior is often discussed within this theoretical framework (Anderson & Bushman, 2001) – individuals, particularly children, may replicate aggressive behaviors observed in media, especially when such behavior appears to be rewarded.

11. Critical Theory

Type of Theory: Macrosociology, Microsociology, and Mesosociology

Critical Theory seeks to challenge and change society as a whole, rather than simply understand or explain it.

This theory, developed by the Frankfurt School scholars, aims to critique and change society, often seeking to emancipate social groups oppressed by a capitalist, hegemonic society (Horkheimer, 2012).

It is an extension of conflict theory, by inserting a more political and ideological perspective, explicitly advocating for class-based social change.

Critical theorists focus on the role of power in society and how dominant social structures and processes maintain power disparities.

Therefore, it not only aims towards understanding the societal dynamics but also advocates for social justice and equality.

Example of Critical Theory
The civil rights movement in the United States exemplified the application of critical theory (Roth, 2019), challenging racial segregation and discrimination laws and advocating for equal rights and social transformation.

12. Postmodern Theory

Type of Theory: Microsociology

Postmodern theory in sociology critiques grand theories and ideologies, focusing on the role of language, power relations, and motivations in shaping our understanding of reality. 

Founded in the mid to late 20th century among thinkers like Foucault and Lyotard, Postmodern Theory challenges universal metanarratives, instead advocating for a respect for difference, contradiction, and the indeterminate nature of knowledge. 

It insists that society is too diverse, fragmented, and complex to be fully captured by broad, sweeping theories. 

Therefore, it encourages a more interpretive, localized, and deconstructive approach to understand social realities. 

Example of Postmodernism
The questioning of established scientific knowledge and the inclusion of marginalized voices and perspectives can be understood through the Postmodern lens, as in Feminist epistemologies (Harding, 2013).

13. Network Theory

Type of Theory: Mesosociology

Network Theory posits that social actors and their actions are best understood through their relations to one another rather than their individual attributes. 

According to this theory, social patterns and phenomena emerge from the complex web of relations among social actors (Borgatti & Halgin, 2011). 

Whether these actors are individuals, groups, organizations, or even societies, their network connections largely influence their behavior, roles, and opportunities. 

The theory emphasizes the importance of ties and relationships, making it crucial in areas like social networking, organizational studies, and public health. 

Example of Network Theory
An example of this theory can be seen in the spread of diseases in epidemiology, such as how HIV/AIDS dissemination was mapped through patients’ social relations (Rothenberg, 2001).

14. Ethnomethodology

Type of Theory: Microsociology

Ethnomethodology suggests that individuals use their knowledge of social norms to construct a sense of order and make sense of the world around them. 

Developed by Harold Garfinkel in the 1960s, this approach focuses on the ways people make sense of their everyday world by creating shared understandings of symbols and actions (Rawls, 2013). 

In essence, it attempts to uncover the hidden rules and structures that individuals subconsciously agree upon to coordinate their interactions smoothly. 

These common-sense knowledge rules allow individuals to interpret and predict the behavior of others, thereby facilitating social interactions. 

Example of Ethnomethodology
The everyday conversations between friends and how they navigate misunderstandings showcases Ethnomethodology in action, reflecting how we use shared understandings to communicate effectively (Sacks, 1995).

15. Structural Functionalism

Type of Theory: Macrosociology

Structural Functionalism views society as a complex system, wherein each part works together to promote the stability and survival of the entire system. 

Built upon the works of Émile Durkheim, Auguste Comte, and Herbert Spencer, this theoretical perspective perceives every aspect of society, be it an institution like family or an act like crime, as serving specific functions to maintain societal balance (Turner, 2013). 

This notion of social equilibrium argues that disruptions, like social change or conflict, are typically rectified by society’s compensatory mechanisms. 

However, critics suggest this perspective overlooks social inequalities, ignoring the disadvantages of certain social arrangements. 

Example of Structural Functionalism
The way different parts of the educational system from schools to universities serve to maintain social order and ensure the smooth functioning of society reflects principles of Structural Functionalism (Ballantine & Hammack, 2013).

16. Social Phenomenology

Type of Theory: Microsociology

Social Phenomenology emphasizes understanding the subjective experiences and interpretations that individuals have of the world. 

Derived from the philosophical tradition of phenomenology, social phenomenologists, like Alfred Schutz, suggest the social world is a human construct, experienced and interpreted through the conscious individuals who inhabit it (Natanson, 2017). 

It is concerned with exploring how individuals ascribe meanings to their experiences, thereby creating their own subjective realities. 

This focus on individual perceptions and interpretations provides a valuable framework for understanding the complexities of social life. 

Example of Social Phenomenology
Individual interpretations of a contentious political event could be explored using social phenomenology, revealing how political orientation, social background, and personal experiences shape subjective perceptions and interpretations (Ku, 2016).

17. Cultural Theory

Type of Theory: Macrosociology, Microsociology, and Mesosociology

Cultural Theory investigates how culture and societal structures influence individual behaviors, beliefs, and identity.

Central to this perspective is an understanding that culture, as a shared system of meanings, guides human behavior and societal operations (Couldry, 2012). 

These shared meanings, symbols, and practices enable communication and cooperation, foster social cohesion, and influence identity formation.

Culture, therefore, is seen as a collective programming of the mind that distinguishes one group or society from another.

Example of Cultural Theory
Cross-cultural differences in general behaviors or business practices could be considered under this theory, highlighting how cultural norms and values shape behaviors (Hofstede, 2011).

18. World Systems Theory

Type of Theory: Macrosociology

World Systems Theory suggests that societies function within a world economic system that inherently promotes disparity and inequality.

Immanuel Wallerstein, who developed the theory, argued that the world system is characterized by a division of labor leading to the development of core, semi-peripheral, and peripheral nations (Wallerstein, 2011). 

Acknowledging that these differing positions affect societies’ economic and political development, this theory challenges the view that all societies go through similar linear stages of development. 

Instead, it underscores how the interconnected global ecosphere shapes and is shaped by national economies. 

Example of World Systems Theory
The persistent economic disparity between developed and developing nations is illustrative of World Systems Theory, revealing how global economic systems contribute to uneven resource distribution (Arrighi, 2010).

19. Social Constructionism

Type of Theory: Microsociology

Social Constructionism posits that social phenomena are created, institutionalized, and made into tradition by humans.

Contrary to theories that view social phenomena as objective facts, social constructionists argue that aspects of the social world – such as social roles, symbols, and institutions – are not inherent or static, but are instead constructed and reconstructed by social actors (Berger & Luckmann, 2011). 

Social Constructionism highlights how these constructed realities can have real, tangible effects on human interaction, social structure, and personal identity

Example of Social Constructionism
Gender roles and expectations serve as a compelling illustration of Social Constructionism, emphasizing how society, not biology, dictates these roles and norms (West & Zimmerman, 2009).

20. Dependency Theory

Type of Theory: Macrosociology

Dependency Theory argues that global inequality is due to the exploitation of peripheral and semi-peripheral nations by core nations.

This theory originated as a response to modernization theory, offering a critique of the existing capitalist world system and arguing that underdevelopment was fostered by the historical development of the world economic system (Frank, 2011). 

In this view, periphery nations exporting raw materials to the core nations are left in a state of dependency, perpetuating a cycle of poverty and underdevelopment.

Example of Dependency Theory
Dependence on commodity exports by many African countries illustrates Dependency Theory, demonstrating how reliance on export earnings from primary commodities can facilitate an exploitative dynamic with more developed nations (Nwoke, 2015).

21. Neo-Marxist Theory

Type of Theory: Macrosociology

Neo-Marxist Theory extends the classical Marxist theory by incorporating factors such as culture, ideology, and state power into the analysis of societal dynamics. 

Neo-Marxists, such as Antonio Gramsci and Louis Althusser, placed much emphasis on the cultural and ideological superstructure that influences and solidifies the capitalist mode of production (Levitsky, 2013). 

This perspective asserts that power resides not just in economic structures, but also in ideological systems which influence and control societal thought and behavior. 

While upholding the fundamental Marxist tenet of economic determinism, Neo-Marxist theory also recognized the independent impacts of politics, social forces, and ideas in shaping societal relations. 

Example of Neo-Marxist Theory
Gramsci’s concept of cultural hegemony, which explains how the dominant class maintains control by shaping cultural norms and values to their advantage, can be considered an application of Neo-Marxist thought (Jones, 2006).

22. Queer Theory

Type of Theory: Microsociology

Queer Theory explores identities and experiences that deviate from the normative understandings of sexuality and gender, advocating for the deconstruction of such binaries. 

Rooted in the intellectual traditions of feminist criticism and gay and lesbian studies, Queer Theory critically interrogates the socio-cultural constructs of gender and sexuality, challenging the conceptual rigidity of these categories (Jagose, 2012). 

It posits that identities are not fixed but fluid and questions the societal stigmatization of non-normative sexual identities and practices.

Example of Queer Theory
The exploration of non-binary gender identities and the critique of heteronormative structures in society exemplify the application of Queer Theory (Butler, 2011).

23. Intersectionality Theory

Type of Theory: Mesosociology

Intersectionality Theory examines how various social categories such as race, class, and gender interact to shape individual experiences and systemic inequality.

Patricia Hill Collins and Kimberlé Crenshaw, key contributors to this theory, argue that systems of oppression are interconnected and cannot be examined independently from one another (Crenshaw, 1989).

This multi-faceted approach to social identities underscores that individuals experience discrimination and privilege in varying degrees, depending on their conjoint identities.

Example of Intersectionality Theory
The unique challenges faced by women of colour, who contend with both racial and gender discrimination, can be understood through the lens of Intersectionality Theory (Choo & Ferree, 2010).

24. Actor-Network Theory

Type of Theory: Microsociology, Macrosociology

Actor-Network Theory suggests that both human and non-human elements contribute equally to the function of social networks and should be treated as actors or agents within a network.

Developed by sociologists such as Bruno Latour and Michel Callon, Actor-Network Theory illustrates the idea that society is constructed through complex networks of interaction between various actors (Latour, 2005). 

It thus dissolves the boundaries between the social and natural world, viewing both human and non-human entities as possessing agency.

Example of Actor-Network Theory
The role of technology in modern social life can be viewed through Actor-Network Theory, reflecting how tech devices shape human behavior and social interaction (Akrich, 1992).

25. Social Identity Theory

Type of Theory: Microsociology, Mesosociology

Social Identity Theory posits that a person’s sense of self is shaped by their membership in social groups and categories.

Developed by Henri Tajfel and John Turner, this theory argues that individuals seek to maintain or enhance their self-esteem by identifying with specific social groups and perceiving these groups in a positive light (Tajfel, 1974).

This identification with in-groups and differentiation from out-groups can lead to bias and discrimination, thereby driving societal dynamics.

Example of Social Identity Theory
Football fan behavior, where loyalty to one’s team often involves devaluing rival teams, illustrates the principles of Social Identity Theory (Brown, 2000).


Sociological theories, ranging from macro to micro levels, provide a lens through which you can examine and understand various societal phenomena. These theories indeed facilitate predictive and explanatory capabilities, thus aiding in gaining a more profound, sharper understanding of the complex environ of human society.


Agnew, R. (2011). Strain theories. In J. C. Barnes & K. M. Beaver (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Criminological Theory (pp. 933-939). SAGE Publications.

Akrich, M. (1992). The de-scription of technical objects. In W. E. Bijker & J. Law (Eds.), Shaping Technology/Building Society: Studies in Sociotechnical Change (pp. 205-224). MIT Press.

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353-359.

Arrighi, G. (2010). The long twentieth century: Money, power, and the origins of our times. Verso Books. Ballantine, J. H., & Hammack, F. M. (2013). The Sociology of Education: A Systematic Analysis. Pearson.

Bandura, A. (2011). Social learning theory. In N. M. Seel (Ed.), Encyclopedia of the Sciences of Learning (pp. 3191-3193). Springer.

Becker, G. S. (2013). The economic approach to human behavior. In N. J. Smelser & R. Swedberg (Eds.), The Handbook of Economic Sociology (pp. 89-105). Princeton University Press.

Berger, P. L., & Luckmann, T. (2011). The social construction of reality: A treatise in the sociology of knowledge. Open Road Media.

Blau, F. D., & Kahn, L. M. (2017). The gender wage gap: Extent, trends, and explanations. Journal of Economic Literature, 55(3), 789-865.

Bobbitt-Zeher, D. (2011). Gender Discrimination at Work: Connecting Gender Stereotypes, Institutional Policies, and Gender Composition of Workplace. Gender & Society, 25(6), 764-786.

Borgatti, S. P., & Halgin, D. S. (2011). On network theory. Organization science, 22(5), 1168-1181. Borgatti, S. P., Mehra, A., Brass, D. J., & Labianca, G. (2018). Network analysis in the social sciences. Science, 323(5916), 892-895.

Brown, R. J. (2000). Group processes: Dynamics within and between groups (2nd ed). Blackwell. Butler, J. (2011). Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex”. Routledge.

Chamlin, M. B., & Cochran, J. K. (2012). Economic inequality, legitimacy, and cross-national property crime. American Journal of Criminal Justice, 37(4), 515-532.

Choo, H. Y., & Ferree, M. M. (2010). Practicing Intersectionality in Sociological Research: A Critical Analysis of Inclusions, Interactions, and Institutions in the Study of Inequalities. Sociological Theory, 28(2), 129-149.

Cook, K. S. (2013). Social exchange theory. In J. DeLamater & A. Ward (Eds.), Handbook of Social Psychology (pp. 61-88). Springer.

Couldry, N. (2012). Media, society, world: Social theory and digital media practice. Polity.

Crenshaw, K. (1989). Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics. University of Chicago Legal Forum, 140, 139-167.

Dominitz, J., & Manski, C. F. (1996). Eliciting student expectations of the returns to schooling. Journal of human resources, 51-63.

Frank, A. G. (2011). Capitalism and underdevelopment in Latin America: historical studies of Chile and Brazil. Monthly Review Press.

Harding, S. (2013). Postmodernism and the Methodological Issues of Feminist Perspective. In M. Evans, C. Hemmings, M. Henry, H. Johnstone, S. Madhok, A. Plomien & S. Wearing (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Feminist Theory (pp. 9-26). SAGE Publications.

Hofstede, G. (2011). Dimensionalizing cultures: The Hofstede model in context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1).

Horkheimer, M. (2012). Critical theory. In M. Horkheimer, Critical Theory: Selected Essays (pp. 188-243). New York: Continuum.

Jagose, A. (2012). Queer Theory. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination (2nd ed, pp. 85-104). Psychology Press.

Jeon, Y. (2017). The strength of long-tie diffusion, social positions, and behaviors. Social Scientist, 45(5), 32–46.

Jones, S. (2006). Antonio Gramsci. Routledge. Ku, A. S. (2016). Phenomenology and Sociology: Theory and research. Routledge.

Kubrin, C. E., & Weitzer, R. (2003). Retaliatory homicide: Concentrated disadvantage and neighborhood culture. Social Problems, 50(2), 157-180.

Latour, B. (2005). Reassembling the Social: An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Oxford University Press.

Levitsky, S. (2013). The end of the transition paradigm. Journal of Democracy, 13(1), 5-21.

Meyer, J. W. (2011). Reflections on the futures of sociology in the United States. Sociologický Časopis/Czech Sociological Review, 47(3), 433-446.

Molm, L. D. (2010). The structure of reciprocity. Social Psychology Quarterly, 73(2), 119-131.

Moore, K. E., Stuewig, J. B., & Tangney, J. P. (2016). The effect of stigma on criminal offenders’ functioning: A longitudinal mediational model. Deviant Behavior, 37(2), 196-218.

Moore, K. E., Stuewig, J. B., & Tangney, J. P. (2016). The effect of stigma on criminal offenders’ functioning: A longitudinal mediational model. Deviant Behavior, 37(2), 196-218.

Natanson, M. (2017). Alfred Schutz: Philosopher and social scientist. In M. Barber (Ed.), The Cambridge Companion to Alfred Schutz (pp. 33-48). Cambridge University Press.

Nwoke, C. I. (2015). African Development in the Twenty-First Century: From the Perspectives of Dependency or World Systems Theory. Africology: The Journal of Pan African Studies, 8(7).

Parsons, T. (2010). The social system. Routledge.

Rawls, A. W. (2013). Harold Garfinkel, Ethnomethodology and Workplace Studies. Organization Studies, 34(5), 701–732.

Risman, B. J. (2017). Where the millennials will take us: A new generation transforms the gender structure. Oxford University Press.

Robinson, D. T. (2014). Conflict theory and interaction rituals: The microfoundations of conflict theory. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 44(4), 457-480.

Roth, M. S. (2019). Civil Rights and Social Justice: An Exploration of Interracial Activism Through History. In C. R. Hale (Ed.), Civil Rights and Social Justice (pp. 13-28). ABC-CLIO.

Rothenberg, R. B. (2001). How a Net Works: Implications of Network Structure for the Persistence and Control of Sexually Transmitted Diseases and HIV. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 28(2), 63–68.

Sacks, H. (1995). Lectures on conversation. Blackwell.

Sampson, R. J., & Groves, W. B. (1989). Community structure and crime: Testing social-disorganization theory. American Journal of Sociology, 94(4), 774-802.

Srivastava, B. (2016). Understanding the social through Durkheim, Weber, Marx and Du Bois. Economic and Political Weekly, 51(11), 39-46.

Stryker, S. (2017). Symbolic interactionism: Themes and variations. In A. J. Elliot (Ed.), The Dance of Identities (pp. 89-109). Milton Park: Routledge.

Tajfel, H. (1974). Social identity and intergroup behaviour. Information (International Social Science Council), 13(2), 65–93.

Tannenbaum, F. (2019). Labeling theory of deviance. In F. T. Cullen & P. Wilcox (Eds), Oxford Bibliographies in Criminology. Oxford University Press.

Turner, J. H. (2013). Theoretical principles of sociology, vol 1: macrodynamics. Springer-Verlag.

Wallerstein, I. (2011). The Modern World-System I: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. University of California Press.

West, C., & Zimmerman, D. H. (2009). Doing gender. In M. S. Kimmel & A. Aronson (Eds.), The gendered society reader (3rd ed., pp. 117–26). Oxford University Press.

Website | + posts

Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *