119 Bloom’s Taxonomy Examples

blooms taxonomy, explained below

Bloom’s taxonomy is a six-step hierarchy of learning objectives created by Benjamin Bloom (1956). Each step in the hierarchy demonstrates increasing learning complexity and higher-order thinking skills.

The taxonomy is generally used by educators and curriculum designers as a way to explain the expected complexity of knowledge, understanding, and learning for a given task. The action verbs in Bloom’s “revised” taxonomy (Krathwohl & Anderson, 2001) act as a foundation for writing learning outcomes.

Steps in Bloom’s Taxonomy

The six steps of increasing cognitive complexity on Bloom’s taxonomy are:

  1. Knowledge (later renamed as Remembering) – At the base level, students can recall fact, terms, and basic concepts. Remembering and being able to repeat knowledge in a rote learning style does not imply meaningful understanding of the content.
  2. Comprehension (later renamed as Understanding) – At this level, learners are expected to go beyond knowing and proceed to demonstrating the underlying meaning of the information. Students may therefore be required to paraphrase and explain the information they’ve acquired.
  3. Application (Applying) – This involves the ability to apply acquired knowledge to solve problems. Ideally, application will occur in new situations and context, demonstrating the potential for students to take knowledge outside of the classroom.
  4. Analysis (Analyzing) – This level focuses on breaking down complex information into component parts in order to compare, contrast, categorize, and better understand the structure, relationships, and underlying principles of ideas.
  5. Synthesis (later renamed as Evaluating) – At this level, learners are required to make judgments. They need first to be able to analyze (step 4) in order to come to reasonable judgement statements. Judgments can be about the value and quality of ideas, materials, and methods. Students may choose to develop their own evaluative criteria and apply them to assess ideas.
  6. Evaluation (later renamed as Creating) – The highest level of cognitive complexity, this level involves going beyond their existing knowledge and creating knowledge. This may be achieved by combining prior knowledge and skills in innovative ways to create new ideas, products, or perspectives.

Bloom’s Taxonomy Examples

Below are examples of learning outcomes based on Bloom’s taxonomy. Each learning outcome builds upon verbs that correlate to each stage of learning complexity.

1. Remembering Examples

Common verbs used in learning descriptors at the ‘remembering’ level include:

  • Arrange
  • Define
  • Describe
  • Identify
  • Label
  • List
  • Match
  • Memorize
  • Name
  • Outline
  • Quote
  • Recall
  • Recognize
  • Repeat
  • Reproduce
  • Retrieve
  • State

Based on those verbs, here are some learning outcomes that demonstrate the ability to remember knowledge:

  1. Recognize the primary colors by pointing to them when prompted. (Preschool)
  2. Recall the names of the days of the week in order. (Kindergarten)
  3. Identify basic shapes such as circles, squares, and triangles. (1st Grade)
  4. Define simple vocabulary words from a story read in class. (2nd Grade)
  5. List the planets of the solar system in order from closest to the sun. (3rd Grade)
  6. Memorize the times tables for multiplication up to 10. (4th Grade)
  7. Name the 50 states and their capitals in the United States. (5th Grade)
  8. Describe the process of photosynthesis in plants. (6th Grade)
  9. Match historical events with their corresponding dates on a timeline. (7th Grade)
  10. Label the major bones in the human skeletal system. (8th Grade)
  11. Identify key literary elements, such as plot, setting, and theme, in a novel. (9th Grade)
  12. Define and provide examples of rhetorical devices used in persuasive writing. (10th Grade)
  13. Recall the formulas for calculating the area and volume of various geometric shapes. (11th Grade)
  14. Describe the main principles of the Theory of Evolution. (12th Grade)
  15. State the First Law of Thermodynamics and its implications in physics. (Freshman in College)
  16. Recognize the major contributions of influential philosophers in the history of Western thought. (Sophomore in College)
  17. Memorize key terminology and concepts in organic chemistry. (Junior in College)
  18. Recall the major milestones in the development of modern psychology theories. (Senior in College)
  19. Define and differentiate between the major categories of computer programming languages. (Master’s level)
  20. Identify and describe the primary components of a research study in the context of their academic discipline. (Doctoral level)

2. Understanding Verbs Examples

Common verbs used in learning descriptors at the ‘understanding’ level include:

  • Explain
  • Summarize
  • Paraphrase
  • Interpret
  • Describe
  • Illustrate
  • Infer
  • Exemplify
  • Translate
  • Compare
  • Contrast
  • Classify
  • Categorize
  • Relate
  • Distinguish
  • Demonstrate
  • Predict
  • Clarify
  • Discuss
  • Review

Based on those verbs, here are some learning outcomes that demonstrate the ability to understand knowledge:

  1. Explain the difference between hot and cold temperatures using everyday examples. (Preschool)
  2. Summarize the main events of a short story read in class. (Kindergarten)
  3. Classify animals into groups based on their characteristics, such as mammals, birds, and fish. (1st Grade)
  4. Compare and contrast the life cycles of butterflies and frogs. (2nd Grade)
  5. Describe the water cycle and its importance to Earth’s ecosystems. (3rd Grade)
  6. Interpret a simple bar graph or pie chart displaying data related to a class topic. (4th Grade)
  7. Discuss the cause and effect relationships in a historical event, such as the American Revolution. (5th Grade)
  8. Explain the role of producers, consumers, and decomposers in a food chain. (6th Grade)
  9. Predict the outcome of a simple experiment based on prior knowledge of scientific principles. (7th Grade)
  10. Paraphrase the main ideas of a poem or a piece of literature. (8th Grade)
  11. Illustrate how the three branches of government in the United States provide a system of checks and balances. (9th Grade)
  12. Describe the process of cellular respiration and its importance for living organisms. (10th Grade)
  13. Interpret the meaning of a political cartoon in the context of a historical event. (11th Grade)
  14. Compare and contrast the advantages and disadvantages of renewable and nonrenewable energy sources. (12th Grade)
  15. Summarize the main theories of international relations in political science. (Freshman in College)
  16. Explain the concept of supply and demand and its impact on market prices. (Sophomore in College)
  17. Discuss the ethical considerations involved in psychological research with human participants. (Junior in College)
  18. Interpret the results of a statistical analysis in the context of a research study. (Senior in College)
  19. Evaluate the validity and reliability of research articles in the context of their academic discipline. (Doctoral level)

3. Applying Examples

Common verbs used in learning descriptors at the ‘applying’ level include:

  • Execute
  • Implement
  • Solve
  • Perform
  • Apply
  • Use
  • Calculate
  • Demonstrate
  • Employ
  • Illustrate
  • Operate
  • Practice
  • Interpret
  • Adapt
  • Manipulate
  • Construct
  • Modify
  • Predict
  • Simulate
  • Analyze

Based on those verbs, here are some learning outcomes that demonstrate the ability to apply knowledge:

  1. Use primary colors to create secondary colors through mixing paints. (Preschool)
  2. Apply knowledge of simple addition and subtraction to solve basic word problems. (Kindergarten)
  3. Demonstrate how to measure the length of an object using a ruler. (1st Grade)
  4. Apply the concept of symmetry to create symmetrical drawings or designs. (2nd Grade)
  5. Use a compass and map to find and follow directions to specific locations. (3rd Grade)
  6. Solve basic algebraic equations with one variable using the order of operations. (4th Grade)
  7. Apply knowledge of fractions to solve real-life problems involving measurements or quantities. (5th Grade)
  8. Use the scientific method to conduct a simple experiment and record observations. (6th Grade)
  9. Create a timeline of events leading up to a historical event, such as the American Revolution. (7th Grade)
  10. Demonstrate the correct use of figurative language in writing a poem or short story. (8th Grade)
  11. Apply knowledge of geometric theorems to solve problems related to angles and lines in geometry. (9th Grade)
  12. Conduct a basic statistical analysis using data collected from a survey or experiment. (10th Grade)
  13. Use appropriate APA style citation styles to create a bibliography for a research paper. (11th Grade)
  14. Apply the principles of physics to explain the behavior of objects in motion. (12th Grade)
  15. Use spreadsheet software to analyze and visualize financial data. (Freshman in College)
  16. Apply knowledge of marketing strategies to create a promotional plan for a product or service. (Sophomore in College)
  17. Design a basic experiment to test a hypothesis in a scientific field. (Junior in College)
  18. Utilize software tools to analyze and manipulate large datasets in a research project. (Senior in College)
  19. Apply project management techniques to develop a detailed plan for a research or professional project. (Master’s level)
  20. Implement qualitative or quantitative research methods to gather and analyze data for a thesis or dissertation. (Doctoral level)

4. Analyzing Examples

Common verbs used in learning descriptors at the ‘analyzing’ level include:

  • Compare
  • Contrast
  • Classify
  • Break down
  • Differentiate
  • Organize
  • Examine
  • Deconstruct
  • Survey
  • Question
  • Analyze
  • Investigate
  • Infer
  • Interpret
  • Deduce
  • Scrutinize
  • Synthesize
  • Relate
  • Evaluate
  • Critique

Based on those verbs, here are some learning outcomes that demonstrate the ability to analyze knowledge:

  1. Sort objects into different categories based on common attributes, such as size, color, or shape. (Preschool)
  2. Compare and contrast the similarities and differences between two story characters. (Kindergarten)
  3. Analyze a simple story and identify the problem and solution presented in the narrative. (1st Grade)
  4. Break down the steps of a life cycle of a plant or animal into a clear sequence. (2nd Grade)
  5. Examine patterns in multiplication tables to identify relationships between numbers. (3rd Grade)
  6. Analyze a piece of writing and identify examples of similes, metaphors, and personification. (4th Grade)
  7. Investigate the causes and consequences of a specific environmental issue, such as pollution or deforestation. (5th Grade)
  8. Dissect a simple machine, such as a bicycle, and identify the function of its various components. (6th Grade)
  9. Examine primary and secondary sources to draw conclusions about a historical event. (7th Grade)
  10. Analyze a poem to identify its theme, tone, and use of literary devices. (8th Grade)
  11. Investigate the relationships between different variables in a scientific experiment using graphs and charts. (9th Grade)
  12. Break down a complex math problem into smaller parts and explain the steps required to solve it. (10th Grade)
  13. Analyze a piece of art or music and discuss its historical context, style, and significance. (11th Grade)
  14. Evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of different political systems or theories. (12th Grade)
  15. Examine the cultural, economic, and political factors that contribute to global issues such as poverty or climate change. (Freshman in College)
  16. Investigate the role of different psychological factors in the development of a specific behavior or disorder. (Sophomore in College)
  17. Analyze a dataset using statistical methods to test a hypothesis in a scientific field. (Junior in College)
  18. Critically examine a scholarly article, identifying its main arguments, evidence, and conclusions. (Senior in College)
  19. Analyze the effectiveness of different leadership styles in various organizational contexts. (Master’s level)
  20. Conduct a literature review to identify patterns, themes, and gaps in existing research on a specific topic. (Doctoral level)

See More Examples of Analysis Here

5. Evaluating Examples

Common verbs used in learning descriptors at the ‘evaluating’ level include:

  • Assess
  • Judge
  • Critique
  • Determine
  • Decide
  • Validate
  • Verify
  • Choose
  • Prioritize
  • Select
  • Compare
  • Contrast
  • Evaluate
  • Interpret
  • Estimate
  • Examine
  • Measure
  • Analyze
  • Test
  • Conclude

Based on those verbs, here are some learning outcomes that demonstrate the ability to evaluate knowledge:

  1. Select the most suitable tool to complete a specific task or solve a simple problem. (Preschool)
  2. Assess which of two solutions is more effective for a given situation in a story. (Kindergarten)
  3. Judge the fairness of rules in a game or activity and suggest improvements. (1st Grade)
  4. Critique a piece of art or a performance by identifying its strengths and areas for improvement. (2nd Grade)
  5. Evaluate the reasonableness of an answer in a math problem-solving context. (3rd Grade)
  6. Assess the reliability of different sources of information for a research project. (4th Grade)
  7. Form an opinion on a current event or issue based on supporting evidence from various sources. (5th Grade)
  8. Evaluate the effectiveness of different methods for conserving energy or resources. (6th Grade)
  9. Justify a personal response to a piece of literature by citing specific evidence from the text. (7th Grade)
  10. Critically assess the impact of a historical event on different groups of people. (8th Grade)
  11. Evaluate the validity of different interpretations of a scientific phenomenon. (9th Grade)
  12. Assess the credibility of various news sources and their coverage of a controversial issue. (10th Grade)
  13. Compare and contrast the strengths and limitations of different artistic or literary movements. (11th Grade)
  14. Evaluate the effectiveness of a public policy or government intervention in addressing a social problem. (12th Grade)
  15. Critically assess the strengths and weaknesses of a theoretical perspective in a specific academic discipline. (Freshman in College)
  16. Evaluate the ethical implications of a business decision or strategy. (Sophomore in College)
  17. Assess the quality of a research study by examining its methodology, findings, and conclusions. (Junior in College)
  18. Compare and contrast different models or theories in the context of a specific problem or issue. (Senior in College)
  19. Critique the effectiveness of a communication strategy in achieving its intended goals. (Master’s level)
  20. Evaluate the contribution of a research study to the existing body of knowledge in a specific academic discipline. (Doctoral level)

6. Creating Examples

Common verbs used in learning descriptors at the ‘creating’ level include:

  • Design
  • Construct
  • Develop
  • Formulate
  • Build
  • Produce
  • Generate
  • Invent
  • Plan
  • Establish
  • Imagine
  • Combine
  • Integrate
  • Synthesize
  • Devise
  • Create
  • Propose
  • Arrange
  • Compose
  • Choreograph

Based on those verbs, here are some learning outcomes that demonstrate the ability to create knowledge:

  1. Create a collage using various materials to express an idea or emotion. (Preschool)
  2. Invent a new ending for a familiar story by drawing or writing a short narrative. (Kindergarten)
  3. Design a simple machine using everyday objects to solve a specific problem. (1st Grade)
  4. Compose a short poem or song using a specific theme or pattern. (2nd Grade)
  5. Develop a plan to improve the local community or school environment. (3rd Grade)
  6. Write a persuasive letter to a local official advocating for change on an issue of concern. (4th Grade)
  7. Create a multimedia presentation to educate others about a specific topic or issue. (5th Grade)
  8. Formulate a hypothesis for a scientific experiment and design a method for testing it. (6th Grade)
  9. Develop a fictional story, complete with characters, setting, and a compelling plot. (7th Grade)
  10. Design a campaign to raise awareness about a social issue or cause. (8th Grade)
  11. Create a detailed proposal for a community service project or event. (9th Grade)
  12. Invent a new product or service to address a specific market need. (10th Grade)
  13. Develop a research question and design a plan for conducting an investigation on the topic. (11th Grade)
  14. Compose an original piece of music or choreograph a dance performance. (12th Grade)
  15. Formulate a hypothesis in a specific academic field and design an experiment to test it. (Freshman in College)
  16. Write a business plan for a new entrepreneurial venture, including market analysis and financial projections. (Sophomore in College)
  17. Create a software application or program to solve a specific problem or meet a specific need. (Junior in College)
  18. Develop an original thesis or argument for a research paper or project. (Senior in College)
  19. Design a training program or curriculum to address a specific skill or competency. (Master’s level)
  20. Conduct original research that contributes to the body of knowledge in a specific academic discipline, culminating in a thesis or dissertation. (Doctoral level)

Conclusion

One of the key points from this list is that higher-level thinking skills are not just reserved for college students. Even young children can use higher-level thinking. The key idea is that the content be differentiated so a younger person can use higher-level understanding with tasks and ideas that they can feasibly grasp.

Make sure you adapt these examples of learning outcomes from Bloom’s taxonomy to your own students’ needs.

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Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]

2 thoughts on “119 Bloom’s Taxonomy Examples”

  1. thank you very much. excellent !
    this article help me to apply higher order thinking in my class and to describe bloom taxnomy to my colleagues better and easier.

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