Belief Systems: Definition, Characteristics & Examples

belief systems definition, examples, and types, explained below

A belief system is a structured set of principles or tenets held to be true by an individual or larger group. It can contain aspects such as morality, life purpose, or empirical reality (Uso-Domenech & Nescolarde-Selva, 2016).

Belief systems are fundamental to human existence. By studying them, we can gain critical insight into the underlying causes behind both individual and societal actions, values, and perceptions.

Belief systems tend to shape our individual code of conduct. For example, the ethical principle of “do no harm” paves the base for medical professionals’ conduct (Wattenberg, 2019).

Furthermore, these systems extend beyond personal ethics, providing a backbone to cultural groups and shaping significant aspects, including politics, law, and cultural norms. For example, broad constructs such as democracy or justice are underpinned by a cultural group’s shared beliefs and norms.

The Origins of Belief Systems

The genesis of belief systems is multifaceted. It traces back to our earliest human ancestors trying to make sense of the world around them.

Examples include:

  • Explaining Natural Phenomena: Oftentimes, belief systems spring from the desire to explain natural phenomena (Converse, 2006). Early societies utilized faith to provide reasons for natural occurrences, such as storms or earthquakes. For instance, the ancient Greeks believed in the God Poseidon, whom they saw as the cause of earthquakes and other seismic events.
  • Social Structure and Control: Belief systems also stem from the human need for social structure and control (Kinder, 2006). Early societies established rules and expectations concerning each member’s behavior. This led to principles that were passed down from generation to generation, creating a communal belief system. Japanese culture, for instance, has a deeply ingrained belief known as “giri” or familial obligation, which dictates social interactions and responsibilities (Kinder, 2006).
  • Experience and Context: They can also be shaped by experience, cultural context, and education. What we learn from our parents, teachers, and life experiences significantly influence our perceptions, beliefs, and values (Converse, 2006). A person who grew up during the civil rights movement in the United States, for example, may have formed strong beliefs about racial equality due to their experiences during that time. Each of these factors, individually or combined, contributes to the creation and development of belief systems.

Types and Examples of Belief Systems

1. Religions

Religions are complex systems of beliefs that shape an individual’s or group’s spiritual worldview. They typically embody questions about the nature of the divine, the afterlife, and moral standards (Schipper, 2015). For example, Christianity holds the belief in a monotheistic God and emphasizes principles of love and forgiveness.

Examples: Christianity, Hinduism, Judaism, Islam, Buddhism, Janism

2. Philosophical Systems

Philosophical systems consist of frameworks that strive to answer life’s fundamental questions. They deal with concepts such as existence, reality, knowledge, values, and morality. A case in point is existentialism, which focuses on individual freedom, choice, and subjective meaning (Popkin, 2018).

Examples: Existentialism, Utilitarianism, Stoicism, Nihilism, Rationalism, Empiricism

3. Political Ideologies

These are belief systems that govern political views and shape how societies should be organized. They dictate the distribution of power, rights, and resources among the population (Wattenberg, 2019). For instance, liberalism places a high importance on individual rights and freedom, advocating for a democratic system and equality of opportunity.

Examples: Liberalism, Conservatism, Socialism, Fascism, Anarchism

4. Economic Systems

These belief systems define how societies produce, distribute and consume goods and services. They guide the economic policies a country adopts and how it manages its resources (Popkin, 2018). Capitalism, for example, is centered on private ownership of resources and a free market for distribution and consumption.

Examples: Capitalism, Socialism, Communism, Mixed economies, Market economies

5. Scientific Paradigms

These influence our understanding and interpretation of natural and physical phenomena. Constituting specific theories, methods, and standards of practice, they shape scientific investigation and discovery (Rutjens & Brandt, 2018). The theory of evolution, for example, guides biologists and paleontologists in their interpretation of fossil records and genetic studies.

Examples: Theory of Evolution, Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity, Newtonian Physics, Plate Tectonics, Germ Theory of Disease

Influence of Belief Systems on Human Behavior

Belief systems fundamentally influence human behavior. They essentially define our perception of what is right or wrong, shaping our actions in alignment with these views.

Belief systems shape moral behavior (Brandt, 2022). For example, most religions have guidelines on ethical conduct (known as “commandments” in Christianity or “precepts” in Buddhism), which influence followers’ behavior. Believers are urged to adhere to these principles, significantly impacting decision-making and conduct.

Belief systems also affect how we go about our days (Rutjens & Brandt, 2018). Our morning routines, our choice of transportation, even the food we eat, are all influenced by deeply rooted belief structures. For example, a person with a belief system focused on environmental sustainability might choose to cycle to work and follow a vegetarian diet.

Likewise, belief systems influence our social behavior (Wattenberg, 2019). They guide our approach towards fairness, justice, and interpersonal relationships. A person who values fairness may eschew discriminatory actions, promoting diversity and inclusivity in their spheres of influence.

Positive and Negative Effects of Belief Systems

While belief systems help cultures develop norms of behavior, shared identities, and frameworks for action, they can also be restrictive and cause in-groups and out-groups.

Below is a summary of key aspects of belief systems, and their positive and negative impacts:

AspectPositive ImpactsNegative Impacts
Individual Identity & Purpose– Provides a sense of belonging and identity.
– Offers purpose, meaning, and direction in life.
– Cultivates self-worth and a sense of value.
– Can lead to an inflexible or narrow view of self-worth.
– May cause an individual to reject other life purposes or paths that diverge from their belief system.
Social Cohesion & Community– Facilitates bonding and unity among group members.
– Establishes shared values, traditions, and customs.
– Promotes cooperation and mutual support.
– Can result in exclusion or ostracism of outsiders or those who think differently.
– May foster division and discrimination against non-believers or minority groups.
Moral Framework– Provides guidelines for ethical behavior and decision-making.
– Instills virtues and moral principles in adherents.
– Encourages acts of charity, kindness, and community service.
– Can justify harmful actions or prejudices as “moral” based on dogmatic views.
– Might lead to judgment or condemnation of others based on differing morals.
Coping & Resilience– Offers comfort and solace during difficult times.
– Provides a sense of hope and assurance of a greater plan.
– Can be a source of strength and motivation to overcome adversity.
– May encourage passivity or reliance on fate instead of proactive problem-solving.
– Potential for disillusionment or crisis of faith when beliefs are challenged.
Knowledge & Curiosity– Some belief systems encourage exploration, learning, and seeking truth.
– Can provide a framework for understanding the world and one’s place in it.
– Can lead to closed-mindedness or rejection of new information.
– Might discourage questioning or critical thinking in favor of dogma.
Cultural & Artistic Expression– Inspires art, music, literature, and architecture.
– Enriches cultural heritage and traditions.
– Can lead to censorship or suppression of artistic expressions deemed inappropriate or heretical.
Conflict & Cooperation– Can promote inter-group harmony when shared beliefs align.
– Facilitates negotiations and diplomacy based on shared values.
– Can spark or exacerbate conflicts when beliefs clash.
– May lead to persecution, violence, or wars in the name of belief.

Summary of Key Points

  • Belief systems underpin individual, societal actions and values.
  • They influence personal ethics, politics, and cultural norms.
  • They’re developed to explain various things, such as natural phenomena, the origins of the universe, and personal experience.
  • Main types of belief systems include religions, philosophical systems, political ideologies, economic systems, and scientific paradigms.
  • Belief systems can positively shape behavior, offer identity, and help form cohesive societies.
  • However, they can also divide societies and cause people to engage in immoral actions.


Brandt, M. J. (2022). Measuring the belief system of a person. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.

Converse, P. E. (2006). The nature of belief systems in mass publics (1964). Critical review, 18(1-3), 1-74.

Kinder, D. R. (2006). Belief systems today. Critical Review, 18(1-3), 197-216.

Popkin, S. L. (2018). The factual basis of “belief systems”: A reassessment. In The Nature of Belief Systems Reconsidered (pp. 279-300). Routledge.

Rutjens, B. T., & Brandt, M. J. (2018). Belief systems and the perception of reality: An introduction. Belief systems and the perception of reality, 1-10.

Scanes, C. G., & Chengzhong, P. (2018). Animals and Religion, Belief Systems, Symbolism and Myth. In Animals and Human Society (pp. 257-280). Academic Press.

Schipper, E. L. F. (2015). Religion and Belief Systems. Cultures and disasters: Understanding cultural framings in disaster risk reduction, 162-71.

Uso-Domenech, J. L., & Nescolarde-Selva, J. (2016). What are belief systems?. Foundations of Science, 21, 147-152.

Wattenberg, M. P. (2019). The changing nature of mass belief systems: The rise of concept and policy ideologues. Critical Review, 31(2), 198-229.

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Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]

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