When transitioning to conclusions, we can simply use the term “In conclusion”, but over time, this word starts to feel tedious and repetitive. There are better ways to do it.
Transition words help your essays flow more easily and act as signposts for your reader so they know when you’re moving from one part of an essay to another.
I’ve saved five bonus transition words for the very end which are my personal favorites. These are for advanced students who really want to demonstrate an academic tone – don’t miss them! They’re at the very end.
Transition Words for Conclusions
1. In conclusion
This phrase is typically used to signal the final remarks in a piece of writing. It helps summarize the main points or findings that have been discussed throughout the text. It is still generally appropriate to use, but can sometimes appear rudimentary use of the English language.
“In conclusion, implementing green technology in our daily lives can significantly reduce carbon footprints.”
“The research findings were quite revealing. In conclusion, more emphasis should be put on early childhood education.”
2. To sum up
This is often used to encapsulate the main points of a discussion or argument in a succinct way. It is used almost as frequently as ‘in conclusion’.
“To sum up, a balanced diet and regular exercise are crucial for maintaining a healthy lifestyle.”
“The evidence points towards the need for more environmental protections. To sum up, without immediate action, our natural resources may become irreversibly damaged.”
3. In summary
Similar to “to sum up”, this phrase is used to provide a brief overview of the main points or findings discussed in the writing.
“In summary, the research suggests a strong correlation between air pollution and respiratory diseases.”
“In summary, the novel is a fascinating exploration of human resilience in the face of adversity.”
4. All in all
This phrase is used to express a final general statement or judgment considering everything that has been said. It is somewhat more colloquial than the three phrases above, making it potentially less valuable for an essay. However, in reflective pieces, it may be used. See the reflective examples below.
“All in all, the team performed well despite the challenging circumstances.”
“All in all, the benefits of recycling outweigh any potential disadvantages.”
This word is used to indicate the final result or fundamental reason after considering everything.
“Ultimately, the success of the project depends on the dedication of the team members.”
“Despite initial hurdles, the venture was successful. Ultimately, perseverance and commitment were key to our success.”
This word is used to introduce a logical conclusion from the evidence or reasons previously stated. It is used best to conclude a paragraph of sub-section than as the final essay conclusion.
“The cost of production has significantly decreased. Therefore, we can expect an increase in profit margins.”
“He didn’t meet the eligibility criteria. Therefore, his application was rejected.”
This is similar to “therefore” and is used to introduce a conclusion, a result or an implication. As with ‘therefore’, ‘It ‘hence’ is used best to conclude a paragraph of sub-section than as the final essay conclusion.
“He was late for his interview. Hence, he didn’t make a good impression.”
“The data was incomplete. Hence, the results of the study may not be entirely accurate.”
This word is used to express a result or effect of a previous statement. It is best used mid-paragraph or in the middle of a sub-section, not an overall conclusion.
“There was heavy rainfall throughout the night. Consequently, the match was postponed.”
“The company didn’t adapt to the changing market trends. Consequently, they faced heavy losses.”
This is used to denote the conclusion or summary of something previously stated. It indicates that what follows is a result or inference from what has been stated before. It is best used mid-paragraph or in the middle of a sub-section, not an overall conclusion. While I quite like this term, some teachers see it as a bit old-timey.
“She didn’t study hard. Thus, she failed the exam.”
“The evidence is clearly inadmissible. Thus, the case should be dismissed.”
10. This essay’s final analysis is…
This phrase is used to introduce the ultimate conclusion that has been reached after consideration of all the facts.
“This essay’s final analysis is that it is the lowest earners in society who have been hit hardest by this economic downturn.”
“This essay’s final analysis is that it’s clear that the policy has had a positive impact on the community.”
11. On the whole
This phrase is often used when you want to make a general summary statement about a larger body of information or arguments. It implies that the statement accounts for all the details and complexities discussed previously. Generally, this is more colloquial so should only be used in less formal essay styles.
“On the whole” can help to simplify complex arguments, and it can signal that the writer has given due consideration to different perspectives or evidence before arriving at their conclusion.
“On the whole, the company’s strategy has been effective, leading to an increase in profits and customer satisfaction.”
“Despite some negative feedback, on the whole, the policy has received wide public approval.”
12. To conclude
Similar to “In conclusion,” this phrase is a clear signal that the writer is about to wrap up their argument or findings.
“To conclude” can provide a sense of closure for the reader and it reaffirms the significance of the arguments or findings that have been presented.
“To conclude, the study revealed that regular exercise can significantly reduce stress levels.”
“To conclude, it is evident from the data that our marketing strategies have significantly boosted sales.”
13. To recap
This phrase is used when the writer wants to summarize the key points of their argument or discussion.
“To recap” can help to reinforce the importance of these points for the reader and it also serves as a quick reference or summary.
“To recap, our findings suggest that the new drug can effectively alleviate symptoms in 80% of patients.”
“To recap, our team achieved all project milestones on time and under budget.”
14. In essence
This phrase is often used when the writer wants to encapsulate the fundamental nature or core idea of their argument or discussion.
“In essence” can help to distill complex ideas or arguments down to their most basic and important elements.
“In essence, the concept of freedom is at the heart of democratic societies.”
“In essence, our project aims to develop sustainable solutions for waste management.”
15. In retrospect
This phrase is typically used when the writer wants to look back on a situation, decision, or period of time and make a summary statement or conclusion about it. Use it in reflective essays.
“In retrospect” can be useful for conveying a sense of learned wisdom or insight gained after the fact. It often suggests that the writer’s perspective has evolved or deepened over time.
“In retrospect, investing in renewable energy technologies was a wise business decision.”
“In retrospect, we could have implemented additional measures to ensure the safety of our staff during the pandemic.”
This is commonly used to indicate a consideration of all factors or an assessment of the situation in its entirety.
“Overall” is often used to summarize complex scenarios involving multiple elements. It represents a comprehensive viewpoint that takes into account all the variables discussed.
“Overall, our company’s performance this year has been exceptional, with growth in nearly all sectors.”
“While the program faced some obstacles initially, overall, it has been successful in achieving its main objectives.”
This word is often used to indicate the last point or idea in a list or sequence.
“Finally” is a transition word that suggests the end of a discussion. It can also indicate the final and often most important point in an argument or discussion.
“Finally, the most compelling evidence for climate change is the consistent rise in global temperatures over the past century.”
“Finally, it’s worth mentioning the commitment and dedication of our team, which played a significant role in the project’s success.”
This word is used to express the idea that something is a logical result of something else.
“Accordingly” signifies that the statement that follows is based on what was previously mentioned. It reflects a cause-effect relationship between two points or arguments.
“We have noticed a significant increase in demand for our product. Accordingly, we have decided to increase our production capacity.”
“The weather forecast predicts heavy snowfall. Accordingly, we have postponed the event.”
19. As a result
Similar to “accordingly”, this phrase is used to indicate that something is a consequence of a previous action or situation.
“As a result” introduces the outcome of a given circumstance or set of circumstances, signifying a cause-effect relationship.
“Our competitors have lowered their prices. As a result, we have also decided to adjust our pricing strategy.”
“The new policies were not well received. As a result, the company faced significant backlash from the public.”
20. In short
This phrase is used when you want to summarize a complex idea, argument, or discussion in a concise way.
“In short” helps to condense complex or lengthy explanations into a simpler and shorter summary. It indicates a concise conclusion.
“In short, the environmental benefits of renewable energy make it a vital component of our fight against climate change.”
“In short, the project was a success, meeting all its goals and objectives within the allocated time and budget.”
21. In brief
This phrase is used to provide a concise summary of information or to draw a quick conclusion.
“In brief” helps to distill longer discussions or complex arguments into their most critical points. It aims to convey the gist of the matter succinctly.
“In brief, adopting sustainable practices is not just beneficial for the environment, but it also makes economic sense.”
“In brief, our research findings confirm the hypothesis that regular exercise can improve mental health.”
22. To summarize
This phrase helps encapsulate the key points discussed in the conversation or writing.
“To summarize” allows the writer to highlight the most important points or findings, reaffirming them for the reader. It reinforces the primary arguments or conclusions.
“To summarize, we believe investing in renewable energy is a strategic decision that will yield long-term benefits.”
“To summarize, the data clearly shows an upward trend in consumer demand for eco-friendly products.”
This word is often used to introduce a conclusion or a result based on the previous discussion.
“So” is a simple and effective way to link cause and effect, or problem and solution. It leads the reader directly to the outcome or conclusion.
“The experiment failed to produce the expected results, so we’ll need to revise our approach.”
“Our marketing campaign has been highly successful, so we plan to increase our advertising budget.”
This word is often used to express that something is obvious or noticeable, especially after analyzing the data or arguments presented.
“Clearly” can emphasize the strength of the evidence or arguments, and it signals confidence in the conclusion.
“Clearly, our efforts to improve customer service have resulted in higher client satisfaction rates.”
“After reviewing the data, it’s clearly evident that our sales have significantly increased since launching the new product line.”
25. After all
This phrase can be used to emphasize a decisive argument or fact that should be considered.
“After all” often introduces a compelling reason or justification that supports the conclusion. It can help stress the importance of the points previously mentioned.
“We should move forward with the merger, after all, it presents a unique opportunity to expand our market reach.”
“The committee decided to fund the project, after all, it aligns with our goals and has significant potential.”
26. As mentioned earlier
This phrase refers back to something that was stated previously in the conversation or text.
“As mentioned earlier” can be used to re-emphasize an important point or piece of evidence that supports the conclusion. It can reinforce the argument by reminding the reader of what has been discussed previously.
One downside of this is it seems redundant – why are you repeating what you said earlier rather than doing what a conclusion should do: summarizing and synthesizing your points.
“As mentioned earlier, the correlation between the variables is strong, indicating a significant relationship.”
“As mentioned earlier, our success is largely due to our dedicated and talented team.”
27. As has been noted
This phrase is often used to restate something important that has been pointed out in the discussion.
“As has been noted” functions similarly to “as mentioned earlier,” serving to underscore a significant point or detail previously discussed. It strengthens the conclusion by referencing crucial information.
As with the phrase “as mentioned earlier”, this one may come across as a redundant phrase and could even signal that you’re repeating yourself rather than adding value through an evaluation or revision exercise.
“As has been noted, the high turnover rate in the company is a significant concern that requires immediate attention.”
“As has been noted, the initiative has resulted in substantial benefits for our community.”
28. As has been shown
This phrase is used to reference evidence or arguments that have been presented earlier.
“As has been shown” emphasizes the proof or reasoning that led to the conclusion. It reaffirms the legitimacy of the conclusion based on the presented evidence.
This can also come across as redundant, though.
“As has been shown, our new marketing strategies have significantly boosted our brand visibility.”
“As has been shown, the new policy has had a substantial positive impact on our employees’ work-life balance.”
29. As we have seen
Similar to the above, this phrase refers to the evidence or arguments discussed earlier in the text.
“As we have seen” serves to revisit important details or arguments that have been presented. It strengthens the conclusion by directly linking it to the evidence discussed.
“As we have seen, the implementation of stricter environmental regulations has led to significant improvements in air quality.”
“As we have seen, investing in staff training and development leads to increased productivity and employee satisfaction.”
30. Given the above points
This phrase is used to draw a conclusion from the arguments or points that have been presented.
“Given these points” signals that the following statement is based on the information discussed earlier. It helps establish a logical connection between the conclusion and the supporting points.
“Given the above points, it’s clear that we must take immediate action to address the climate crisis.”
“Given the above points, our company should continue to prioritize customer service as a key aspect of our business strategy.”
31. By and large
This phrase is often used to indicate a general conclusion, considering all the information.
“By and large” is used to sum up general trends or themes that have been discussed. It signals that the conclusion takes into account all the points made, rather than focusing on one particular point.
However, it can come across as a bit informal.
“By and large, our team’s performance this quarter has exceeded expectations.”
“By and large, customer feedback about our new product line has been positive.”
32. For the most part
Similar to “by and large”, this phrase indicates that the conclusion drawn applies broadly but allows for exceptions.
“For the most part” suggests a nuanced conclusion that covers the majority of situations or cases but acknowledges that there may be exceptions. It indicates a balanced and fair summary.
This one’s formality level is also quite low
“For the most part, the new legislation has been successful, though there are a few areas that require further refinement.”
“For the most part, our employees have embraced the new remote working arrangements, though a small number have experienced challenges.”
33. As has been demonstrated
This phrase refers to the evidence or arguments presented in the body of the text that support the conclusion.
“As has been demonstrated” underscores the points or evidence that have been made and connects them directly to the conclusion. It is a way of affirming the strength of the presented arguments or evidence.
“As has been demonstrated, the innovative design features of our product set us apart from the competition.”
“As has been demonstrated, implementing green initiatives in our operations has both environmental and economic benefits.”
34. With this in mind
This phrase suggests that the conclusion follows logically from the information or arguments that have been presented.
“With this in mind” sets up the conclusion as a direct response or reaction to the evidence or points made. It indicates that the conclusion is informed by these considerations.
“With this in mind, we propose an expansion of our research and development department to drive future innovation.”
“With this in mind, it’s crucial that we continue our efforts to reduce carbon emissions and promote sustainable practices.”
35. Taking everything into account
This phrase is used to express a comprehensive conclusion that considers all the arguments, evidence, or factors presented.
“Taking everything into account” shows a thorough and thoughtful conclusion that takes into account all aspects of the discussion. It signifies a balanced and careful consideration of all the relevant information.
“Taking everything into account, we recommend a strategic pivot towards digital marketing in order to reach a broader audience.”
“Taking everything into account, our analysis suggests that investing in renewable energy sources would be beneficial for our long-term growth.”
Advanced Transition Phrases for Conclusions
The following are five phrases I personally use in my own academic conclusions, especially for argumentative essays. They’re for advanced students aiming to show depth of knowledge!
36. Based on the available evidence
This phrase is demonstrating that you’re about to sum up the essay’s key arguments. You are saying that you’re making an evaluation after examining all of the evidence and research on the topic. It helps to show your argument is based on evidence, which is good to show in an academic paper.
“Based on the available evidence, it appears that the best path forward for addressing AI in the workplace is to allow it but regulate it to prevent unwanted negative externalities such as job losses.”
“Based on the available evidence, teachers should be paid more than they currently are, given that they contribute significantly to social and economic development of societies.”
37. According to the key literature outlined in this paper
Similar to the above example, this one demonstrates that your final decision and thesis statement in your argumentative essay is based on real evidence and research, not just your opinion. So, you could begin your conclusion like this!
“According to the key literature outlined in this paper, it appears that the best path forward for addressing AI in the workplace is to allow it but regulate it to prevent unwanted negative externalities such as job losses.”
“According to the key literature outlined in this paper, teachers should be paid more than they currently are, given that they contribute significantly to social and economic development of societies.”
38. From an evaluation of the above arguments
This point doesn’t lean on evidence for your conclusion directly, but it does lean on the culminated evidence of the arguments you’ve put forward. You’re saying that you have put forward a range of arguments, and now, you’re going to powerfully sum them up and present your final thesis statement.
“From an evaluation of the above arguments, the most compelling argument is that students should still be given homework, despite the fact there is evidence on both sides of the homework argument.”
“From an evaluation of the above arguments, it is the position of this paper that schools should start later to allow children to sleep in and therefore be more rested when it is time to study.”
39. The balance of evidence finds
This statement highlights that you have looked at both the pros and cons of your topic before coming to a position. The metaphor of ‘balance’ makes us think of someone holding the points for one side of the argument in one hand, the opposing points in the other hand, and they’re weighing each up before deciding which is heavier.
“The balance of evidence finds that essays help students to reinforce their knowledge, learn more deeply, and develop academic skills.”
“The balance of evidence finds that taxation should be lowered in order to stimulate economic growth which, on balance, will lead to a more prosperous and thriving society.”
40. The research compellingly indicates
Lastly, the phrase “the research compellingly indicates” can be used in a transition to a conclusion because it demonstrates that you’re about to sum up all the research you’ve just made and you’re going to make a final evaluation.
“The research compellingly indicates that visiting the doctor for a yearly check-up saves money overall, prevents backlog in hospitals, and prolongs life.”
“The research compellingly indicates that essay writing helps students to learn their topics more deeply, develop critical thinking skills, and improve long-term retention of knowledge.”
Other Types Of Transition Words
- Compare and Contrast: In comparison, In contrast, However, Despite this, Other researchers argue, Unlike the above point, Conflicting research finds
- Cause and Effect: Therefore, Thus, As a result, This has led to, As a result, Because, Consequently, For that reason, Hence, For that reason
- List Order: First, Second, Third, Forth, In the first instance, In the second instance, Firstly, Secondly, Next, Lastly, Finally
- Time Order: Afterwards, Concurrently, Later, Meanwhile, Following, In the meantime, Simultaneously, Concomitantly, Subsequently
- Evidence Transition Words: As can be seen in, To demonstrate, Evidence of this fact can be seen in, Proof of this point is found in, For instance, For one thing, Compelling evidence shows
- Transitioning to examples: For example, for instance, as illustrated by, take the following case in point.
- Emphasis and addition: In fact, Indeed, Furthermore, Particularly, Surely, Undeniably, Indesputably, Confirms, Certifies, Proves
- Similarity: Similarly, In a similar way, Concurring research finds, likewise, equivalently, also, significantly
Well, how would someone conclude an article about how to write a good conclusion? I’ll finish up like this: every conclusion is unique. Work on your own writerly voice, come up with your own transition words for conclusions, and be creative with it. The biggest challenge you will face is staying within the formal guidelines of an academic essay. For this, rely on your teacher. Keep asking for feedback, and even specifically ask for feedback on your transition words. This will help you learn what your teacher prefers and help you to keep refining your writing style.
Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education. [Image Descriptor: Photo of Chris]