How to use Quotes in an Essay | 7 Key Tips (2019)

how to use quotes in an essay

How to use quotes in an essay:

(1) Avoid Long Quotes,
(2) Quotes should be less than 1 sentence long,
(3) Match Quotes with Explanations and Examples,
(4) Use Max. 2 Quotes for 1500 words,
(5) Use page numbers when Citing Quotes,
(6) Don’t Italicize Quotes,
(7) Avoid quotes inside quotes.

Using quotes in essays can be a great way to make your paper stand out above the rest.

However, it can also cost you marks if you don’t do it right. Of the thousands of assignments I have marked in my time, a fair percentage of students simply don’t know how to correctly use quotes in essays.

Using quotes in essays can be a great way to make your paper stand out above the rest. However, it can also cost you marks if you don’t do it right. Of the thousands of assignments I have marked in my time, a fair percentage of students simply don’t know how to correctly use quotes in essays.

There are several important points to keep in mind when writing quotes in essays. In this post I break these down for you one at a time.

Once you have mastered these quotation writing rules you’ll be on your way to growing your marks in your next paper.

Many teachers I have worked with don’t like when students use quotes in essays. In fact, some teachers absolutely hate essay quotes. The teachers I have met have many reasons for this, including:

  • Students don’t know how many quotes should be in an essay;
  • Students don’t follow the right quotation format;
  • Students don’t match quotes with explanations and examples;
  • Students don’t know how to properly cite a quote;
  • Quotes can make it look like students don’t know how to paraphrase.

I’ll break down the answers to these points and more in this post. But first, let me briefly explain some reasons why you should use quotes in essays.

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Should I use Quotes in Essays?

There are some good reasons to use quotes.

One main reason to use quotes in essays is to emphasise a famous statement by a top thinker in your field. Here are some examples of when to use quotes in essays to emphasise the words of top thinkers:

  • The words of Stephen Hawking go a long way in Physics;
  • The words of JK Rowling go a long way in Creative Writing;
  • The words of Michel Foucault go a long way in Cultural Studies;
  • The words of Jean Piaget go a long way in Education Studies.

Another reason to use quotes in essays is when you want to analyse a statement by a specific author. This author might not be famous, but they might have said something that requires unpacking and analysing. You can provide a quote, then unpack it by explaining your interpretation of it in following sentences.

Quotes usually need an explanation and example. You can unpack the quote by asking:

  • What did they mean,
  • Why is it relevant, and
  • Why did they say this?

You want to always follow-up quotes by top thinkers or specific authors with discussion and analysis. Quotes should be accompanied by:

  • Explanations of the quote;
  • Analysis of the ideas presented in the quote; or
  • Real-world examples that show you understand what the quote means.

Remember: A quote should be a stimulus for a discussion, not a replacement for discussion.

Below are nine key rules for using quotes in essays.

1. Avoid Long Quotes in Essays

There’s a simple rule to follow here: don’t use a quote that is longer than one line. In fact, four word quotes are usually best.

Long quotes in essays are red flags for teachers. It doesn’t matter if it is an amazing quote. Many, many teachers don’t like long quotes, so it’s best to avoid them.

Too many students provide quotes that take up half of a paragraph. This will lose you marks – big time.

If you follow my perfect paragraph formula, you know that most paragraphs should be about six sentences long, which comes out to about six or seven typed lines on paper. That means that your quote will be maximum of one-sixth (1/6) of your paragraph. This leaves plenty of space for discussion in your own words.

One reason teachers don’t like long quotes is that they suck up your word count. It can start to look like you didn’t have enough to say, so you inserted quotes to pad-out your essay. Even if this is only your teacher’s perception, it’s something that you need to be aware of.

Here’s an example of over-use of quotes in paragraphs:

Avoid Quotes that are Too Long

Children who grow up in poverty often end up being poor as adults. “Many adult Americans believe that hard work and drive are important factors on economic mobility. When statistics show that roughly 42% of children born into the bottom level of the income distribution will likely stay there (Isaacs, 2007), this Is a consequence of structural and social barriers.” (Mistry et al., 2016, p. 761). Therefore poverty in childhood needs to be addressed by the government.

This student made the fatal mistake of having the quote overtake the paragraph.

Simply put, don’t use a quote that is longer than one line long. Ever. It’s just too risky.

Personally, I like to use a 4 word quote in my essays. Four word quotes are long enough to constitute an actual quote, but short enough that I have to think about how I will fit that quote around my own writing. This forces me to write quotations that both show:

  • I have read the original source, but also:
  • I know how to paraphrase

2. Do not use a Quote to that takes up a full Sentence, Starts a Sentence, or Ends a Paragraph

These are three common but fatal mistakes.

Essay quotes that start sentences or end paragraphs make you appear passive.

If you use a quotation in an essay to start a sentence or end a paragraph, your teacher automatically thinks that your quote is replacing analysis, rather than supporting it.

You should instead start the sentence that contains the quote with your own writing. This makes it appear that you have an active voice.

Similarly, you should end a paragraph with your own analysis, not a quote.

Let’s look at some examples of quotes that start sentences and end paragraphs. These examples are poor examples of using quotes:

Avoid Quotes that Start Sentences

The theorist Louis Malaguzzi was the founder of the Reggio Emilia Approach to Education. “Children have the ability to learn through play and exploration. Play helps children to learn about their surroundings” (Malaguzzi, 1949, p. 10). Play is better than learning through repetition of drills or reading. Play is good for all children.

Avoid Quotes that End Paragraphs

Before Judith Butler gender was seen as being a binary linked to sex. Men were masculine and women were feminine. Butler came up with this new idea that gender is just something society has made up over time. “Gender is a fluid concept” (Butler, 1990, p. 136).

Both these quotes are from essays that were shared with me by colleagues. My colleagues marked these students down for these quotes because the quotes:

  • took up full sentences;
  • started sentences; and
  • were used to end paragraphs.

It didn’t appear as if the students were analysing the quotes. Instead, the quotes were doing the talking for the students.

There are some easy strategies to use in order to make it appear that you are actively discussing and analysing quotes.

One is that you should make sure the essay sentences with quotes in them don’t start with the quote. Here’s some examples of how we can change the quotes:

Example 1: Start Quote Sentences with an Active Voice

The theorist Louis Malaguzzi was the founder of the Reggio Emilia Approach to Education. According to Malaguzzi (1949, p. 10), “children have the ability to learn through play and exploration.” Here, Malaguzzi is highlighting how play is linked to finding things out about the world. Play is important for children to develop. Play is better than learning through repetition of drills or reading. Play is good for all children.

Here, the sentence with the quote was amended so that the student has an active voice. They start the sentence with: According to Malaguzzi, ….

Similarly, in the second example we can also insert an active voice by ensuring that our quote sentence does not start with a quote:

Example 2: Start Quote Sentences with an Active Voice

In 1990, Judith Butler revolutionised Feminist understandings of gender by arguing that “gender is a fluid concept” (p. 136). Before Butler’s 1990 book Gender Trouble, gender was seen as being a binary linked to sex. Men were masculine and women were feminine. Butler came up with this new idea that gender is just something society has made up over time.

In this example, the quote is not at the start of a sentence or end of a paragraph – tick.

Here’s some other ways you might want to start sentences containing quotes with an active voice:

How to Start Sentences containing Quotes
According to Malaguzzi (1949, p. 10), “…”
Malaguzzi (1949, p. 10) argues that “…”
In 1949, Malaguzzi (p. 10) highlighted that “…”
The argument of Malaguzzi (1949, p. 10) that “…” provides compelling insight into the issue.

3. Match Quotes with Explanations and Examples


Earlier on, I stated that one key reason to use quotes in essays is so that you can analyse them.

Quotes shouldn’t stand alone as explanations. Quotes should be there to be analysed, not to do the analysis.

Let’s look again at the quote used in Point 1:

Example: A Quote that is Too Long

Children who grow up in poverty often end up being poor as adults. “Many adult Americans believe that hard work and drive are important factors on economic mobility. When statistics show that roughly 42% of children born into the bottom level of the income distribution will likely stay there (Isaacs, 2007), this Is a consequence of structural and social barriers.” (Mistry et al., 2016, p. 761). Therefore poverty in childhood needs to be addressed by the government.

This student has included the facts, figures, citations and key details in the quote. Essentially, this student has been lazy. They failed to paraphrase.

Instead, this student could have selected the most striking phrase from the quote and kept it. Then, the rest should be paraphrased. The most striking phrase in this quote was “[poverty] is a consequence of structural and social barriers.” (Mistry et al., 2016, p. 761).

So, take that one key phrase, then paraphrase the rest:

Example: Paraphrasing Long Quotes

Children who grow up in poverty often end up being poor as adults. In their analysis, Mistry et al. (2016) highlight that there is a misconception in American society that hard work is enough to escape poverty. Instead, they argue, there is evidence that over 40% of people born in poverty remain in poverty. For Mistry et al. (2016, p. 761), this data shows that poverty is not a matter of being lazy alone, but more importantly “a consequence of structural and social barriers.” This implies that poverty in childhood needs to be addressed by the government.

To recap, quotes shouldn’t do the talking for you. Provide a brief quote in your essay, and then show you understand it with surrounding explanation and analysis.

4. Know how many Quotes to use in an Essay

There’s a simple rule for how many quotes should be in an essay.

Here’s a good rule to follow: one quote for every five paragraphs. A paragraph is usually 150 words long, so you’re looking at one quote in every 750 words, maximum.

To extrapolate that out, you’ll want a maximum of about:

  • 2 quotes for a 1500-word paper;
  • 3 quotes for a 2000-word paper;
  • 4 quotes for a 3000-word paper.

That’s maximum, not a target. There’s no harm in writing a paper that has absolutely zero quotes in it, so long as it’s still clear that you’ve closely read and paraphrased your readings.

The reason you don’t want to use more quotes than this in your essay is that teachers want to see you saying things in your own words. When you over-use quotes, it is a sign to your teacher that you don’t know how to paraphrase well.

5. Always use page numbers when Citing Quotes in Essays

One biggest problem with quotes is that many students don’t know how to cite quotes in essays.

Nearly every referencing format requires you to include a page number in your citation. This includes the three most common referencing formats: Harvard, APA and MLA. All of them require you to provide page numbers with quotes.

QUOTATION FORMAT EXAMPLES

 

Citing a Quote in Chicago Style

Citing a Quote in APA Style / Citing a Quote in Harvard Style

Citing a Quote in MLA Style

Incorrect

 

“Gender is a fluid concept” (Butler 1990).

“Gender is a fluid concept” (Butler, 1990).

“Gender is a fluid concept” (Butler).

Correct

 

“Gender is a fluid concept” (Butler 1990, 136).

“Gender is a fluid concept” (Butler, 1990, p. 136).

“Gender is a fluid concept” (Butler 136).

Including a page number in your quotation makes a huge difference when a marker is trying to determine how high your grade should be.

This is especially true when you’re already up in the higher marks range. These little editing points can mean the difference between placing first in the class and third. Don’t underestimate the importance of attention to detail.

6. Don’t Italicize Quotes

For some reason students love to use italics for quotes. This is wrong in absolutely every major referencing format, yet it happens all the time.

I don’t know where this started, but please don’t do it. It looks sloppy, and teachers notice. A nice, clean, well-formatted essay should not contain these minor but not insignificant errors. If you want to be a top student, you need to pay attention to the minor details.

Do You Italicise Quotes?

Answer: No.

Incorrect:            “Gender is a fluid concept”, argues Butler (1990, p. 136).
Correct:                “Gender is a fluid concept”, argues Butler (1990, p. 136).

7. Avoid quotes inside quotes

Have you ever found a great quote and thought, “I want to quote that quote!” Quoting a quote is a tempting thing to do, but not worth your while.

I’ll often see students write something like this:

Poor Quotation Example: Quotes Inside Quotes

Rousseau “favoured a civil religion because it would be more tolerant of diversity than Christianity. Indeed ‘no state has ever been founded without religion as its base’ (Rousseau, 1913: 180).” (Durkheim, 1947, p. 19).

Here, there’s quotes on top of quotes. The student has quoted Durkheim quoting Rousseau. This quote has become a complete mess and hard to read. The minute something’s hard to read, it loses marks.

Here’s two solutions:

  1. Cite the original source. If you really want the Rousseau quote, just cite Rousseau. Stop messing around with quotes on top of quotes.
  2. Lean the ‘as cited in’ method. Frankly, that method’s too complicated to discuss here. But if you google it, you’ll be able to teach yourself.

Summing Up

Be a minimalist when it comes to using quotes. Here’s the seven approaches I recommend for using quotes in essays:

  1. Avoid Long Quotes in Essays
  2. Do not use a Quote to that takes up a full Sentence, Starts a Sentence, or Ends a Paragraph
  3. Match Quotes with Explanations and Examples
  4. Use a Maximum of 2 Quotes for every 1500 words
  5. Always use page numbers when Citing Quotes in Essays
  6. Don’t Italicize Quotes
  7. Avoid quotes inside quotes
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Chris Drew, PhD (aka The Helpful Professor)

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