**A null hypothesis is a general assertion or default position that there is no relationship or effect between two measured phenomena.**

It’s a critical part of statistics, data analysis, and the scientific method. This concept forms the basis of testing statistical significance and allows researchers to be objective in their conclusions.

A null hypothesis helps to eliminate biases and ensures that the observed results are not due to chance. The rejection or failure to reject the null hypothesis helps in guiding the course of research.

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**Comprehension Questions:**As you read through this article, our editor Chris will pose comprehension and critical thinking questions to help you get the most out of this article. Teachers, if you assign this article for homework, have the students answer these questions at home, then use them as stimuli for in-class discussion.

## Null Hypothesis Definition

**The null hypothesis, often denoted as H _{0}, is the hypothesis in a statistical test which proposes no statistical significance exists in a set of observed data.**

It hypothesizes that any kind of difference or importance you see in a data set is due to chance.

Null hypotheses are typically proposed to be negated or disproved by statistical tests, paving way for the acceptance of an alternate hypothesis.

Importantly, a null hypothesis cannot be proven true; it can only be supported or rejected with confidence.

Should evidence – via statistical analysis – contradict the null hypothesis, it is rejected in favor of an alternative hypothesis. In essence, the null hypothesis is a tool to challenge and disprove that there is no effect or relationship between variables.

**Comprehension Checkpoint:**Based on the above information, come up with your own paraphrased definition of the null hypothesis. Consider using keywords like “statistical significance” and “observed data” in your own definition.

### Video Explanation

I like to show this video to my students which outlines a null hypothesis really clearly and engagingly, using real life studies by research students! The into explains it really well:

“There’s an idea in science called the null hypothesis and it works like this: when you’re setting out to prove a theory, your default answer should be “it’s not going to work” and you have to convince the world otherwise through clear results”

Here’s the full video:

**Comprehension Checkpoint:**Based on the above video, explain why proving the null hypothesis is often seen as a failure, and why Tom Scott believes it shouldn’t be in his statement, “the achievement is the same, no matter the result.”

## Null Hypothesis Examples

**Equality of Means:**The null hypothesis posits that the average of group A does not differ from the average of group B. It suggests that any observed difference between the two group means is due to sampling or experimental error.**No Correlation:**The null hypothesis states there is no correlation between the variable X and variable Y in the population. It means that any correlation seen in sample data occurred by chance.**Drug Effectiveness:**The null hypothesis proposes that a new drug does not reduce the number of days to recover from a disease compared to a standard drug. Any observed difference is merely by chance and not due to the new drug.**Classroom Teaching Method:**The null hypothesis states that a new teaching method does not result in improved test scores compared to the traditional teaching method. Any improvement in scores can be attributed to chance or other unrelated factors.**Smoking and Life Expectancy:**The null hypothesis asserts that the average life expectancy of smokers is the same as that of non-smokers. Any perceived difference in life expectancy is due to random variation or other factors.**Brand Preference:**The null hypothesis suggests that the proportion of consumers preferring Brand A is the same as those preferring Brand B. Any observed preference in the sample is due to random selection.**Vaccination Efficacy:**The null hypothesis states that the efficacy of Vaccine A does not differ from that of Vaccine B. Any differences observed in a sample are due to chance or other confounding factors.**Diet and Weight Loss:**The null hypothesis proposes that following a specific diet does not result in more weight loss than not following the diet. Any weight loss observed among dieters is considered random or influenced by other factors.**Exercise and Heart Rate:**The null hypothesis states that regular exercise does not lower resting heart rate compared to no exercise. Any lower heart rates observed in exercisers could be due to chance or other unrelated factors.**Climate Change:**The null hypothesis asserts that the average global temperature this decade is not higher than the previous decade. Any observed temperature increase can be attributed to random variation or unaccounted factors.**Gender Wage Gap:**The null hypothesis posits that men and women earn the same average wage for the same job. Any observed wage disparity is due to chance or non-gender related factors.**Psychotherapy Effectiveness:**The null hypothesis states that patients undergoing psychotherapy do not show more improvement than those not undergoing therapy. Any improvement in the**Energy Drink Consumption and Sleep:**The null hypothesis proposes that consuming energy drinks does not affect the quantity of sleep. Any observed differences in sleep duration among energy drink consumers is due to random variation or other factors.**Organic Food and Health:**The null hypothesis asserts that consuming organic food does not lead to better health outcomes compared to consuming non-organic food. Any health differences observed in consumers of organic food are considered random or attributed to other confounding factors.**Online Learning Effectiveness:**The null hypothesis states that students learning online do not perform differently on exams than students learning in traditional classrooms. Any difference in performance can be attributed to chance or unrelated factors.

**Comprehension Checkpoint:**Come up with thee other hypothetical studies that will employ the null hypothesis as part of the research design.

## Null Hypothesis vs Alternative Hypothesis

**An alternative hypothesis is the direct contrast to the null hypothesis. It posits that there is a statistically significant relationship or effect between the variables being observed.**

If the null hypothesis is rejected based on the test data, the alternative hypothesis is accepted.

Importantly, while the null hypothesis is typically a statement of ‘no effect’ or ‘no difference,’ the alternative hypothesis states that there is an effect or difference.

**Comprehension Checkpoint: **How does the null hypothesis help to ensure that research is objective and unbiased?

Type of Hypothesis | Null Hypothesis | Alternative Hypothesis |

Definition | A statement of no effect or no relationship | A statement that suggests there is an effect or relationship |

Denotation | H_{0} | H_{a} or H_{1} |

Example | The average time to recover using Drug A is the same as with Drug B | The average time to recover using Drug A is less than with Drug B |

Statistical Significance | No statistical significance between observed data | Statistical significance exists between observed data |

Outcome if True | The observed result is due to chance | The observed result is due to the effect or relationship |

**Comprehension Checkpoint:**Write down your own paraphrased explanation of the difference between the null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis. What purpose does each serve in scientific research?

## Applications of the Null Hypothesis in Research

The null hypothesis plays a critical role in numerous research settings, promoting objectivity and ensuring findings aren’t due to random chance.

**Clinical Trials:**Null hypothesis is used extensively in medical and pharmaceutical research. For example, when testing a new drug’s effectiveness, the null hypothesis might state that the drug has no effect on the disease. If data contradicts this, the null hypothesis is rejected, suggesting the drug might be effective.**Business and Economics:**Businesses use null hypotheses to make informed decisions. For instance, a company might use a null hypothesis to test if a new marketing strategy improves sales. If data suggests a significant increase in sales, the null hypothesis is rejected, and the new strategy may be implemented.**Psychological Research:**Psychologists use null hypotheses to test theories about behavior. For instance, a null hypothesis might state there’s no link between stress and sleep quality. Rejecting this hypothesis based on collected data could help establish a correlation between the two variables.**Environmental Science:**Null hypotheses are used to understand environmental changes. For instance, researchers might form a null hypothesis stating there is no significant difference in air quality before and after a policy change. If this hypothesis is rejected, it indicates the policy may have impacted air quality.**Education:**Educators and researchers often use null hypotheses to improve teaching methods. For example, a null hypothesis might propose a new teaching technique doesn’t enhance student performance. If data contradicts this, the technique may be beneficial.

In all these areas, the null hypothesis helps minimize bias, enabling researchers to support their findings with statistically significant data. It forms the backbone of many scientific research methodologies, promoting a disciplined approach to uncovering new knowledge.

**Comprehension Checkpoint:**Based on the above information, explain in your own words why null hypothesis is so important in scientific research. Why does it ‘form the backbone’ of empirical research?

## Conclusion

The null hypothesis is a cornerstone of statistical analysis and empirical research. It serves as a starting point for investigations, providing a baseline premise that the observed effects are due to chance. By understanding and applying the concept of the null hypothesis, researchers can test the validity of their assumptions, making their findings more robust and reliable. In essence, the null hypothesis ensures that the scientific exploration remains objective, systematic, and free from unintended bias.

Dr. Chris Drew is the founder of the Helpful Professor. He holds a PhD in education and has published over 20 articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education.