Encoding Specificity Principle: 15 Examples & Definition

Reviewed By Chris Drew (PhD)

Chris Drew (PhD)

encoding specificity principle example and definition

The encoding specificity principle is a cognitive principle stating that an individual’s recall of information is enhanced when the environment in which they originally learned something is similar to the environment in which they are attempting to recall it.

It states that associating material with its context or situation can help people retrieve it more easily. 

For example, if an individual studied an AP psychology while sitting in the same chair, they may be more likely to remember what they learned when sitting in that same chair again rather than another one. 

Furthermore, cues such as smells, sounds, or other environmental features can also help enhance recall under this principle.

Encoding Specificity Principle Definition

The encoding specificity principle states that recall is easier if you are attempting to recall information in contexts similar to the context in which you learned the information

That is, an individual’s recall of material is enhanced when the conditions they are attempting to remember it matches those of when they originally learned it. 

It includes not only physical factors such as seating arrangements but also emotional cues such as smells and sounds, which may also contribute to better recall (Tulving & Craik, 2005).

According to Tulving and Thompson, the encoding specificity principle states that:

“…memory is context-dependent and thus, effective retrieval is facilitated by the feature overlap of the retrieval cue itself and both the information and the context of the encoded input trace” (Ireland & Fischer, 2010, p. 74). 

This principle has been used to explain why certain environments can facilitate more efficient recall. 

Tulving and Thompson also mentioned that this principle:

“…asserts that a retrieval cue, and in particular an extra list cue, can be effective only if the to-be-remembered (TBR) item has been specifically encoded with respect to that cue during input” (Postman, 1975, p. 663).

Simply, the encoding specificity principle suggests that objects, facts, and events should be studied in the environment in which they will be recalled in order to remember them better in that same environment later. 

Alongside other techniques like elaborative encoding, it is a powerful method for assisting in information memorization.

Encoding Specificity Principle Examples

  1. Study spaces: A student studying a foreign language in their bedroom may be better able to recall that language when they return to the bedroom than in another environment.
  2. Coffee as recall stimulus: An individual studying for an exam while drinking coffee may be better able to recall information if they drink coffee again while attempting to retrieve it.
  3. Smell cues: Smells can act as context cues for recalled information – for example, a person might remember something from their childhood if they re-encounter the same or similar scent during recall.
  4. Imagining the original context: An individual trying to remember what they need to buy for baking a cake closes their eyes and imagines themselves back in their kitchen because it makes their mind return to the place where they read the ingredients list.
  5. The kitchen drama: A wife and husband are debating what actually happened in the kitchen the night before. To job their memories, they walk into the kitchen and re-enact the event.
  6. Playing familiar music: Familiar music playing while studying could help an individual remember facts more easily on a later test if similar music is playing during recall attempts (see also: acoustic encoding).
  7. The lecture hall: When students take notes during lectures and review them later to reinforce their learning, revisiting the lecture hall while reviewing the notes can aid in recall efficiency. It is because the contextual cues present in the lecture hall enrich the process of recalling information.
  8. Temperature and lighting: The conditions in which information is learned can impact an individual’s ability to recall it later on. Environmental factors such as temperature or lighting during learning could aid in retrieving information when similar conditions are present during a retrieval attempt. For example, remembering details about a restaurant visit may be easier when returning to the same location with a similar atmosphere and ambiance.
  9. Real world language learning: A language learner seems to do well remembering words in the classroom where they learned the words, but in the real world, they never manage to recall the necessary words. To resolve this, the teacher starts teaching shopping words at the supermarket and traffic words out on the footpath.
  10. Talking to your tutor to job recall: Conversations with peers or tutors can also help with memorization because verbal cues are reinforced and stored together with concepts learned and discussed during the conversation. Later on, when recalling those topics verbally, the stored verbal cues and associated concepts are triggered, making it easier to remember the information.
  11. Applying classroom theory to real-life situations: A student mechanic learned the theory of fixing pistons in the classroom with textbooks, but when he’s working on an actual engine, he struggles to remember.
  12. The doctor struggling in the ward: A new doctor was shown how to suture on a dummy at university, but he sometimes forgets the procedure when he’s trying to do it in the patient ward.
  13. Applying multiplication to the real world: A student knows how to do times tables on a worksheet but when he was in the supermarket trying to find out the price of three chocolates, he struggled to remember the principles.
  14. The home team advantage: A spelling bee is hosted on rotation for all schools in the district. Statistically, the home team wins most often, because they get to practice their spelling words in the same hall as the actual event.
  15. The forgettable meeting: An employee may struggle to recall information discussed in a meeting if they are in a different physical location when attempting to retrieve it, as the context cues are different.

Origins of Encoding Specificity Principle

The encoding specificity principle is believed to have originated from the research of Canadian psychologist Endel Tulving in the early 1970s.

His theory of encoding specificity argued that memory recall depended on contextual cues present during initial encoding, suggesting that certain environmental factors may aid long-term memory storage and retrieval (Tulving & Thompson, 1973).

Tulving and colleagues (1973) conducted a series of experiments with participants being shown pairs of words and attempting to remember them sometime later. 

Results showed that when presented with both words from the pair upon recall (i.e., same context or cues as during learning), participants were better able to remember than when presented with one word from the pair (or no contextual cue at all). 

It demonstrated that memory recall was heavily influenced by environmental features present during the initial encoding process, leading to the development of the encoding specificity principle (Tulving & Thompson, 1973).

Since then, the psychological community has widely accepted the model as a valid and valuable tool for understanding how memories are encoded and retrieved.

Role of Semantics in Encoding Specificity Principle

Semantics, or the meaningful relationships between words and concepts, is important in the encoding specificity principle. According to Tulving’s theory, successful recall of information depends on retrievability cues present at the time of encoding.

One such cue is semantic similarity – when a person is trying to remember something they have heard previously, it can be helpful if other words are mentioned related to those being recalled (Hannon & Craik, 2001).

For example, if someone was trying to recall the word ‘dog,’ hearing a related word such as ‘pet’ could help them to retrieve their desired memory. 

Moreover, another way in which semantic similarity can aid memory recall is through association (Hannon & Craik, 2001).

For instance, students studying for an exam might associate certain terms with one another to help them remember specific facts more easily; or, they might use highlighters to color code their notes to achieve visual encoding.

Associations like this allow people to take advantage of contextual cues that may help improve their ability to retain and later retrieve information. 

So, by understanding semantics’ role in memory recall, we can see just how important contextual cues are for successful encoding and retrieval. 

Benefits of Encoding Specificity Principle

An encoding specificity principle is a valuable tool for understanding how memories are stored and retrieved. Considering the environmental influences during information encoding, this model has provided many benefits in psychology.

One such benefit is improved study techniques. Understanding that certain contextual cues can help aid recall, people can take advantage of these features by creating helpful associations between concepts they are trying to remember. 

Such a practice not only helps them retain more information but also makes it easier to retrieve this information when required (Quinlan & Dyson, 2008).

Researchers have also applied this principle to better understand how autobiographical memories are stored and recalled. 

In doing so, they were able to identify which factors contribute most significantly to memory recall and gain insight into how different types of memories may be encoded differently to improve accuracy and retrievability (Yanes et al., 2019).

Finally, mental health professionals have also used this principle to aid therapy sessions and improve recovery from trauma or PTSD by using specific cues during treatment to increase clients’ ability to recall important details for their own benefit.

Overall, it has proven itself invaluable in helping us better understand how memory works and how we can use this knowledge to our advantage when trying to remember something or undergoing psychotherapeutic treatments.

Criticism of Encoding Specificity Principle

While the encoding specificity principle is useful for understanding how memories are stored and retrieved, it has also been criticized for subjectivity and generalization.

Some researchers believe that the model does not consider the subjective nature of memory. In other words, different people might remember things differently due to their individual contexts and experiences (Eysenck, 2001).

Furthermore, while this model helps explain certain features of memory recall, such as semantic similarity, it does not explain other aspects of memory retrieval, such as episodic memory or realization of meaning (Postman, 1975).

Such a problem leaves many questions unanswered when it comes to an understanding of how memories are formed and recalled.

Finally, focusing on environmental factors may overlook certain biological factors affecting memory recall or even form part of what is remembered (such as emotions). 

It means that further research needs to be done to better understand how these various components interact with one another.

Although some criticisms surround the encoding specificity principle, it has proven to be a valuable tool in helping us understand more about how our brains store and later retrieve information.

Related: Types of Encoding


An encoding specificity principle is valuable in understanding how people store and retrieve memories.

By considering the environmental factors present during encoding, individuals can improve their ability to remember information more efficiently. 

Environmental cues such as smells, sounds, and physical features can all serve as helpful retrieval cues. 

This model has also been applied in psychotherapy treatments and studying autobiographical memories, wherein the emphasis on such environmental cues can help to bring back lost or forgotten memories. 

For example, increased study performance could be achieved through the use of contextual cues. At the same time, mental health professionals can employ these strategies to help their clients recall important aspects of their therapy. 

Although some criticisms surround the encoding specificity principle, it has proven to be a valuable tool in helping people better understand how memory works. 


Eysenck, M. W. (2001). Principles of cognitive psychology. Psychology Press.

Hannon, B., & Craik, F. I. M. (2001). Encoding specificity revisited: The role of semantics. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale55(3), 231–243. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0087369

Ireland, C. A., & Fisher, M. J. (2010). Consultancy and advising in forensic practice: Empirical and practical guidelines. John Wiley & Sons Incorporated.

Postman, L. (1975). Tests of the generality of the principle of encoding specificity. Memory & Cognition3(6), 663–672. https://doi.org/10.3758/bf03198232

Quinlan, P. T., & Dyson, B. (2008). Cognitive psychology. Pearson Education.

Tulving, E., & Craik, F. I. M. (2005). The Oxford handbook of memory. Oxford University Press.

Tulving, E., & Thomson, D. M. (1973). Encoding specificity and retrieval processes in episodic memory. Psychological Review80(5), 352–373. https://doi.org/10.1037/h0020071

Yanes, D., Frith, E., & Loprinzi, P. D. (2019). Memory-related encoding-specificity paradigm: Experimental application to the exercise domain. Europe’s Journal of Psychology15(3), 447–458. https://doi.org/10.5964/ejop.v15i3.1767

Viktoriya Sus

Viktoriya Sus (MA)

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Viktoriya Sus is an academic writer specializing mainly in economics and business from Ukraine. She holds a Master’s degree in International Business from Lviv National University and has more than 6 years of experience writing for different clients. Viktoriya is passionate about researching the latest trends in economics and business. However, she also loves to explore different topics such as psychology, philosophy, and more.

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This article was peer-reviewed and edited by Chris Drew (PhD). The review process on Helpful Professor involves having a PhD level expert fact check, edit, and contribute to articles. Reviewers ensure all content reflects expert academic consensus and is backed up with reference to academic studies. Dr. Drew has published over 20 academic articles in scholarly journals. He is the former editor of the Journal of Learning Development in Higher Education and holds a PhD in Education from ACU.

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