In this post, I’m going to explain to you clearly and in a step-by-step way how to conduct a character analysis.
I’m also going to give you a ton of examples.
This post is split into four parts for easy navigation:
- What is a Character Analysis Essay?
- What is the best Format to Use?
- 11 Character Analysis Example Ideas
- Template, Checklist and Outline for Your own Piece
1. What is a Character Analysis Essay?
Let’s get you started with some really simple details about what a character analysis is:
- A Quick Definition: A character analysis essay zooms-in on a character in a book, movie or even real life. It provides what we sometimes call a ‘sketch’ of a character.
- The Purpose of a Character Analysis: The purpose of a character analysis is to reveal interesting details about the character that might contain a broader moral message about the human condition. For example, Atticus Finch is not just a lawyer in To Kill a Mockingbird. Rather, he provides us with a moral message about the importance of doing what you believe is right even though you know you will likely fail.
2. What is the best Character Analysis Essay Format?
Character analysis essays do not have just one format.
However, let me offer some advice that might act as a character analysis essay outline or ‘checklist’ of possible things you could discuss:
1. Start with the Simple Details.
You can start a character analysis by providing a simple, clear description of who your character is. Look at some basic identity traits such as:
- Race (if relevant)
- Social class (if relevant)
- Protagonist or Antagonist? A protagonist is the character who is our central character in the plot; the antagonist is often the protagonist’s opponent or challenger.
- Major or minor character?
2. What are the character’s distinctive personality features?
Your character might have some really clearly identifiable character traits. It’s best to highlight in your character analysis the exact traits that this character possesses. Some common character traits include:
I recommend you take a moment to write down what you think the top 3 to 5 words are that you’d use to explain your character’s personality traits. These will be important to discuss throughout your character analysis.
Sometimes a character may start out with some personality traits, but change over the course of the text. This is quite common; and one clear example of this is Lady Macbeth she deteriorates from a cutthroat power player to a guilt ridden shell of a person roaming the halls of the castle. This dramatic character change is something that makes her very interesting, and is worthy of discussion!
3. What are the character’s key relationships?
Does your character have a close relationship with a certain person in the storyline?
You might want to discuss the character’s relationships as a part of your character analysis. These relationships may reveal some key personality traits of your character.
For example, in Shakespeare’s play Hamlet, Horatio is the loyal offsider to Hamlet. Through his actions in staying by Hamlet through thick and thin, we learn that he is a deeply loyal character.
Examining the character’s relationships with their friends and foes therefore is very useful for digging deeper into who this character actually is, and what personality traits they have when they are put to the test within the narrative.
4. What are the character’s motivations?
Another thing you might want to examine are the character’s motivations. What do they desire most in the world? Some common motivations for characters in stories are:
- A simple life
- To serve others
This list really could be endless, but I hope the above examples give you a bit of an idea of the sorts of traits to look out for. By mentioning and examining the motivations of the character, we will come closer and closer to learning exactly what moral message this character might be able to tell us.
5. What are the character’s key conflicts?
Stories tend to have a beginning, a complication, and a resolution.
The complication involves conflicts and challenges that need to be overcome. For Edmund in Narnia, it’s cowardice. For Romeo and Juliet, it’s the conflict between love and family loyalty. Here’s some other common conflicts for characters:
- Whether to stay loyal to a friend;
- To overcome obstacles to love;
- To seek a way out of a challenging situation;
- To escape war or poverty;
- To persevere through imprisonment;
- To overcome personal fear
Again, this list is endless.
Knowing the character’s core conflict gets us even closer to knowing the moral that the character is trying to teach us.
For example, in Romeo and Juliet, the challenge of Romeo and Juliet being together despite their families’ objections teaches us something. Personally, I believe it teaches us the importance of letting go of old grudges in order to let love bloom.
This moral lesson was taught to us through conflict: namely, the conflict that Romeo and Juliet were right in the center of.
6. What are the character’s epiphanies?
Sometimes a character has an epiphany. This often happens towards the end of the story and helps the character overcome the challenge or conflict that we discussed in the point above.
Here’s an example of an epiphany:
- In the Lion King, Simba runs away from his tribe to live in exile. After a chance encounter with his childhood friend Nala, he has an epiphany that he has a duty to his tribe. This leads him back home to fight Scar and return freedom to Pride Rock.
Not all characters have an epiphany. But, if they do, I strongly encourage you to write about it in your character analysis.
7. Examine the moral message the character teaches us.
Finally, conclude by examining the moral message behind the character. Nearly every character has something to teach the reader. Authors put a lot of thought into creating complex characters with whom we can relate. We relate to the character and say “wow, they taught me a lesson about something!”
The lesson might be something like:
- Money doesn’t buy happiness;
- Loyalty to family comes above all else;
- Love gives life meaning;
- Honesty is always the best policy
This is the core of your character analysis essay. If you can pick out exactly what moral message the character teaches you, you’ll be well on your way to writing a strong character analysis.
Below I’m going to give you some examples to help you out. I know it can be hard to really get your head around a character, so sometimes the best thing is to look at some samples!
3. Here’s 13 Example Character Analysis Essay Ideas.
Most times when we create a character analysis, we’re exploring the deeper moral stories / aspects of humanity. Here’s some example ideas. I’ve tried to outline in less than a paragraph exactly what your key point will be about each character:
- Atticus Finch from To Kill a Mockingbird: A character who teaches us a lesson about standing up for what’s right, even if you know you’re likely to lose.
- Huckleberry Finn from Huckleberry Finn: A character who reveals our inner desire for freedom from the elements of society that constrain us.
- Dudley from Harry Potter: A character whose personality tells us a cautionary tale of the perils of middle-class narcissism, parents’ desire to wrap their children in cotton wool, and the lack of discipline we perceive in contemporary childhoods.
- Jack from Lord of the Flies: A character who represents the innate desire for power that seems to lurk not too far from the surface of the human condition. When social structures are stripped away, he quickly reverts to violence and superstition to assert control over his peers.
- Lady Macbeth from Macbeth: Lady Macbeth teaches us a valuable lesson about the perils of contravening our own morality. She starts out a cutthroat killer but is increasingly consumed by the guilt of her own actions. While we may be able to escape full punishment from outside forces, it is the inner guilt that might eat us away to our last.
- The Boy who Cried Wolf: The boy who cried wolf is a character whose fatal flaw is his desire for attention and adulation. His repeated attempts at gaining the attention of others leads the townspeople to no longer take him seriously, which causes him harm when he actually needs the villagers to take him seriously to save his life. He teaches us the virtue of honest and humility.
- Nick Carraway from the Great Gatsby: Nick shows us all the inner conflict between the trappings of wealth, glamor and spectacle; and the desire for simplicity, honesty and community. He is drawn by the dazzling world of East Egg, New York, but by the end of the novel sees live in East Egg as shallow and lacking the moral depth of his former life in small town Minnesota.
- Alice from Alice in Wonderland: In many ways, Alice represents the child within all of us. She is a character of goodwill to all and who looks upon the world (or, rather, Wonderland) with awe. Travelling with a cadre of flawed characters, she learns with them the importance of seeking strength from within.
- The Nurse in Romeo and Juliet: Like many Shakespearian characters, the nurse’s role is both as loyal confidante to a central character and comic relief. Shakespeare uses minor characters to regale his crowd and sustain viewer interest between scenes.
- Lucy in The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe: Lucy represents a surprising character whose youthfulness and small stature make her an underrated character by all around her. Nonetheless, she possesses within the bravery and loyalty necessary to carry out the quest for Aslan. Lucy represents the goodness in children and, by extension, all of mankind.
- Anne in Anne of Green Gables: Anne occupies the typical literary role of young girls in many classical novels: she represents innocence and wonder, and her contraventions of rules are seen through a prism of childhood innocence. This frames Anne not as a deviant but as a precious soul.
- Simba from The Lion King: Simba’s story follows his struggle with growing up, embracing his destiny and duty to his family, or fleeing towards freedom and a ‘no worries’ lifestyle. Simba flees Pride Rock and goes through an existential crisis with his existentialist friends Timon and Pumba. When he runs into an old childhood friend, he realizes how shallow his new carefree life has become and reflects upon his obligation to his community back home.
- Woody from Toy Story: Woody starts out Andy’s favorite toy, but when Andy gets a new flashier toy, Woody’s status amongst the toys falls apart. Woody’s key character challenge is to learn to be humble and inclusive living within the group. By the end of the movie, Woody realizes his duty to love and serve Andy is more important than his own status within the group.
4. Here’s an Example Template for your own Character Analysis Essay
Feel free to use this brainstorming template to get you started with your character analysis essay. I recommend filling out as many of these key points as you can, but remember sometimes you might have to skip some of these points if they’re not relevant to your character.
Once you’ve brainstormed the ideas in Table 1, follow the character analysis essay outline in Table 2 to stay on track for your character analysis essay. Do remember though that each assignment will be different and you should adjust it based on your teacher’s requirements.
Here’s Table 1, which is a brainstorming template for your character analysis essay:
1. What is the character’s:
· Social Class
2. What sort of character are they:
· A protagonist
· An antagonist
· Major character
· Minor character
3. What are the character’s major personality traits? Try to come up with 5. Here’s some examples:
· Loyalty, greed, honesty, dishonesty, fearful, brave, loving, withdrawn
4. What are the character’s key relationships to other characters? Here’s some examples:
· Best friend to the protagonist, love interest, daughter, heir apparent, mother, teacher
5. What are the character’s motivations? Some examples:
· Love, power, sex, revenge, greed
6. What conflicts or challenges does the character face? Some examples:
· Overcoming loss, learning a lesson, defeating an adversity, passing a test, completing a quest
7. What epiphanies and / or moral message does the character teach us? Some examples:
· Money doesn’t buy happiness, power corrupts, love conquers all, do not lie
And here’s Table 2, which is an example character analysis essay outline. This is for a 1500 word character analysis essay. Change the word count according to how long your essay should be:
· Who the character is;
· What text they are from;
· What you are going to discuss
(See also our post on writing the perfect essay introduction)
Character’s Key Personality Traits
· What the character’s key personality traits are;
· Scenes / chapters where the character’s traits are revealed;
· How / if the character’s personality traits change throughout the story
Character’s Role in the Story
· The character’s motivations;
· The character’s central conflicts and challenges
Character’s Moral Message
· If the character has an epiphany;
· What moral messages the character can teach us
· The character’s personality;
· The character’s role in the story;
· The character’s moral message
(See also our post on writing the perfect essay conclusion)
Character analyses can be really tough. You need to know your character really well. You might even need to re-read (or watch) your book or movie a few times over to get to know the character really well.
I recommend when you re-read or re-watch the text before you write your character analysis, have the checklist I provided above handy and take notes. Then, use the essay outline I provided above to put all of those notes together into a clear and thorough final character analysis essay.